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[BOAI] THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Fri, 6 Jun 2003 15:17:36 +0100 (BST)


Threading:      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

The brief article (full-text below) appears today, Friday June 6, 2003
in the Times Higher Education Supplement. 
	Toll access: http://makeashorterlink.com/?Y5DE124D4
	Toll-free access to fuller versions, with links:
		http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/thes.html  and
		http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/theshort.html
 
	"Why I believe that all UK research output should be online"
			Stevan Harnad

Unlike journalists or book authors, researchers receive no royalties or
fees for their writings. They write for "research impact", the sum of
all the effects of their work on the work of others and on the society
that funds it. So how research is read, used, cited and built on in
further research and applications needs to be measured.  

One natural way to measure research impact would be to adopt the
approach of the web search engine Google. Google measures the importance
of a website. It does this by rank-ordering search results according to
how many other websites link to them: the more links, the higher the
rank. This works amazingly well, but it is far too crude for measuring
research impact, which is about how much a paper is being used by other
researchers. There is, however, a cousin of web links that researchers
have been using for decades as a measure of impact: citations.

Citations reference the building blocks that a piece of research uses to
make its own contribution to knowledge. The more often a paper is used
as a building block, the higher its research impact. Citation counts are
powerful measures of impact. One study has shown that in the field of
psychology, citation counts predict the outcome of the research
assessment exercise with an accuracy of more than 80 per cent.

The RAE involves ranking all departments in all universities by their
research impact and then funding them accordingly. Yet it does not count
citations. Instead, it requires universities to spend vast amounts of
time compiling dossiers of all sorts of performance indicators. Then
still more time and effort is expended by teams of assessors assessing
and ranking all the dossiers.

In many cases, citation counts alone would save at least 80 per cent of
all that time and effort. But the Google-like idea also suggests ways to
do even better, enriching citation counts by another measure of impact:
how often a paper is read. Web "hits" (downloads) predict citations 
that
will come later. To be used and cited, a paper first has to be accessed
and read. And downloads are also usage (and hence impact) measures in
their own right.

Google also uses "hubs" and "authorities" to weight link 
counts. Not all
links are equal. It means more to be linked to by a high-link site than
a low-link site. This is the exact equivalent to co-citation analysis,
in which it matters more if you are cited by a Nobel laureate than by a
new postdoc.

What this new world of webmetrics needs to be mined and used to
encourage and reward research is not a four-yearly exercise in
paperwork. All university research output should be continuously
accessible and hence assessable online: not only the references cited
but the full text. Then computer programs can be used to extract a whole
spectrum of impact indicators, adjustable for any differences between
disciplines.

Nor are time-saving, efficiency, power and richness of these webmetric
impact indicators their only or even principal benefits. For the
citation counts of papers whose full texts are already freely accessible
on the web are more than 300 per cent higher than those that are not. So
all of UK research stands to increase its impact dramatically by being
put online. Every researcher should have a standardised electronic CV,
continuously updated with all the RAE performance indicators listed and
every journal paper linked to its full-text in that university's online
"eprint" archive. Webmetric assessment engines can do all the rest.

At Southampton University, we have designed (free) software for creating
the RAE CVs and eprint archives along with citebase, a webmetric engine
that analyses citations and downloads. The only thing still needed is a
national policy of self-archiving all research output to enhance and
assess its impact.

Details: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad


[BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Sun, 8 Jun 2003 00:56:00 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
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             [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

On Sat, 7 Jun 2003 [identity removed] wrote:

> > The brief article, Friday June 6, 2003,
> > in the Times Higher Education Supplement.
> >                 http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/theshort.html
> > In Ariadne 35,  http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad/ Harnad 
writes:
> >       The Funding Councils should mandate that in order to be 
eligible
> >       for Research Assessment and funding, all UK research-active
> >       university staff must maintain (I) a standardised online 
RAE-CV,
> >       including all designated RAE performance indicators, chief 
among
> >       them being (II) the full text of every refereed research paper,
> >       publicly self-archived in the university's online Eprint 
Archive
> >       and linked to the CV for online harvesting, scientometric 
analysis
> >       and assessment.
> 
> How will this affect people who move (a) between industry and 
> academia, and (b) between countries?  It sounds to me as if it would
> work only for people who stay all their life in the place they were born.

Institutional Eprint Archives are OAI-compliant:
http://www.openarchives.org/. That means they are all interoperable. One
continues to get credit for one's publications even when one changes
employment. And all research institutions, not just universities,
are encouraged to create institutional Eprint Archives to maximize the
impact of their research publications. The only institutions to which
this would not apply would be those that do not publish their research
output at all. (There, for the researcher contemplating transfering
to a university, "publish or perish" is the familiar rule to 
consider;
self-archiving is merely to maximize the impact of published research. For
unpublished research, nolo contendere -- though if there are other forms
of quantifiable performance indicators for such unpublished industrial
research, they could certainly be listed in the researcher's standardized
online CV http://paracite.eprints.org/cgi-bin/rae_front.cgi which can
also be made OAI-compliant and interoperable with all other such CVs
and CV-assessors.)

> Or does "every refereed research paper" only mean those papers 
written
> under the councils' funding?  I absolutely agree that as long as they
> pay, they can (and should) set the rules.

It means every refereed paper, whether council-funded or not. The
research-funders are in a position to mandate not only the publishing
of the research output, but the maximizing of its impact. So are the
researcher's employers (particularly as they are the co-beneficiaries
of both the research funding and the research impact). It is merely a
natural extension of the existing carrot/stick system we call "publish
or perish" to "publish with maximal impact."

> I personally think the issue should address the individual interest
> ("how you can improve your academic career") rather than 
centralized
> regulation ("the council should mandate...").

The main interest is of course that of research itself, and the reason
we conduct and fund it. But the interests of an individual research
career depend on employment and research-funding. So it all boils down
to the same thing. (There is nothing new here, as noted: Whatever was
"mandated" under the classical and uncontroversial 
"publish-or-perish"
rule is simply given a natural extension here into the online age:
If "publish" simply means "maximize user access to your 
peer-reviewed
research findings by publishing them in a paper journal" then its
natural PostGutenberg generalization is "maximize user access to your
peer-reviewed research findings by publishing them in a paper journal
*and* self-archive them online to make them openly accessible to all
would-be users and not just those whose institutions can afford the
access-tolls of the journal in which it is published." )

Or, for short: Publish with Maximal Access (= open access).
http://www.soros.org/openaccess/

Stevan Harnad


[BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 18:26:36 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message
             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from freemamh AT lavc.edu
             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from peters AT earlham.edu
             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from juliana AT tin.it

> Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 09:19:45 +0100
> From: [identity deleted]
>
>>		RE: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003
>> 		"All UK research output should be online"
>> 		http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/thes.html
>> 		Details: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad
>
> Interesting, and a little ahead of its time. I am sure that citations
> will play an increasingly important role in the judgements of some
> [UK Research Assessment] panels next time. But to go the whole way you
> suggest requires a number of other things to be in place, not least 
> [1] new copyright arrangements, and confidence that other academics 
> everywhere else in the world are [2] able to be made aware of and then 
> [3] access the research publications in question. We are not there yet.

It is certainly true that we are not there yet, but we are much, much
closer than it may appear. And the outcome is both inevitable and optimal
for research, researchers, their institutions, their research funders, and
the funders of their funders (tax-paying society). What needs to be done
is to hasten and facilitate it, and the UK is in a unique position to
do this.

[1] Regarding copyright, see the Table of Publishers' Policies on
Self-Archiving maintained by JISC's Project Romeo (Rights Metadata for
Open Archiving):
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/index.html

Of the over 7000 journals so far surveyed, 55% already formally support
self-archiving, and most of the remaining 45% (perhaps 30%) will agree
on an individual-paper basis if asked. And there are even legal means of
self-archiving the remaining 15%:
http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/#self-archiving-legal

So, depending on which way we decide to reckon it, we are at least 55%,
probably 85% and potentially 100% there already, insofar as copyright
arrangements are concerned. 

So copyright is certainly not the problem.

[2] Regarding international awareness of self-archived open-access
research, both the awareness and the evidence of the incomparably
higher visibility and usage of open-access research is already there
in abundance: It has been reported in Nature that research that is
freely accessible online is cited 336% as much as equivalent research
that is not:
http://www.neci.nec.com/~lawrence/papers/online-nature01/
There are also search engines such as
http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/ poised to become the
googles of the refereed research literature as soon as that research
is self-archived, and webmetric search engines ready to monitor and
quantify impact, in many rich new ways:
http://citebase.eprints.org/cgi-bin/search
http://citebase.eprints.org/java/correlation/correlation.html

So worldwide awareness certainly is not the problem.

[3] International access certainly is not the problem either: That is
what open-access self-archiving is all about!

No, everything is in place and ready. The only thing that is missing
(and hence the only problem) is the research itself! Researchers (and
their institutions) have not yet realised that the way to maximise their
work's impact is to make it open-access by self-archiving it.

It is precisely for this reason that it is so important that
research-funders should help them realise the importance of maximising
their research's impact, by the simple and eminently natural extension of
the "publish or perish" rule to: "publish with maximal impact 
(through
self-archiving)."

And it is for this reason that HEFCE and RAE and the UK Research Funding
Councils are in a position to hasten and facilitate the optimal and
inevitable, thereby leading the way for the rest of the research world,
while, paradoxically, simplifying their own lives, insofar as research
assessment is concerned, even while increasing the predictive power and
validity of the RAE!

You are right that we are not there yet. To get there we need to go the
whole way. And the time for that is now. (Indeed, it is overdue, as
research impact is being needlessly lost daily, and assessment effort is
being needlessly expended, while we wait.)

Stevan Harnad

PS 
(i) The standardised online RAE-CV can include not only refereed
journal papers and their webmetric impact measures but all other
performance indicators too, tailored to each discipline.
http://paracite.eprints.org/cgi-bin/rae_front.cgi

(ii) Book-based disciplines can self-archive their book's metadata
(author, title, date, publisher) and reference list to derive the
full benefit of these new measures of impact even if they prefer not
to self-archive the full-text.
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/bookcite.htm

(iii) And even research data (normally is too voluminous to be
co-published with the research papers based on it) can be self-archived,
and benefit from measures of its citation and usage:
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/data-archiving.htm



Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: "Margaret H. Freeman" <freemamh AT lavc.edu>
Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 16:42:41 -0400


Threading: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
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             [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk> 
wrote:

> So copyright is certainly not the problem.

That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive and
sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.

Margaret



[BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 22:46:55 +0100 (BST)


Threading: Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from freemamh AT lavc.edu
      • This Message

On Tue, 10 Jun 2003, Margaret H. Freeman wrote:

> On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT 
ecs.soton.ac.uk> wrote:
> 
>sh> So copyright is certainly not the problem.
> 
> That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
> humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive and
> sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.

All disciplines cite original literature.

That publisher copyright is not an obstacle to the
self-archiving of peer-reviewed journal articles is true of
*all* disciplines. Humanities are not an exception. Please
see the publisher self-archiving policy table in:
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm

But perhaps you did not mean peer-reviewed journal copyright, but
book copyright. The humanities as a whole do publish far more of their
research in book form rather than as journal articles, and in general
book-authors and their publishers do not wish to give away the
full-texts of their potentially royalty-bearing books. In this
case there is still a solution that allows their work's impact to
be measured in exactly the same way as with journal articles --
http://citebase.eprints.org/cgi-bin/search -- namely, if authors
self-archive (in addition to self-archiving the full-text of any
journal articles they write) their books' metadata-only (author,
title, publisher, year), along with the full-texts of only
their reference lists. That will allow a book-citation impact
factor (not currently available anyewhere) to be calculated
in exactly the same way as the article-citation impact:
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/bookcite.htm

This will also add to the visibility of the book -- and it
might even allow a rudimentary download estimate to be made:
http://citebase.eprints.org/java/correlation/correlation.html

In addition, for esoteric monographs that expect only a succes d'estime,
but not much by way of royalties, the possibility of increasing their
impact still further by making their full-text openly accessible might
in some cases encourage authors to make different arrangements with
their publishers, perhaps to publish them in an online-only monograph
series, especially if otherwise publication expenses might have been
difficult to recover.

The humanities too, along with the sciences, may also wish to enhance
the research value of their publications by self-archiving the data on
which they are based -- a possibility that had been excluded, for
reasons of page-limits and their expense in the case of both books and
journal articles:
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/data-archiving.htm

Stevan Harnad



Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Peter Suber <peters AT earlham.edu>
Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2003 16:44:28 -0500


Threading: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
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             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from freemamh AT lavc.edu
             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from juliana AT tin.it

At 04:42 PM 6/10/2003 -0400, you wrote:
>On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT 
ecs.soton.ac.uk> wrote:
>
> > So copyright is certainly not the problem.
>
>That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
>humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive and
>sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.
>
>Margaret

Margaret,
      Could you elaborate on this a bit further?  I can understand why art 
historians and art critics have problems.  They want to reproduce entire 
works to illustrate their points.  But I don't see any comparable problem 
for scholarship in literature, history, philosophy, or religion.  Citing 
original literature, and quoting passages in fair use, do not violate 
copyright.
      I can also see why copyright would thwart those who want to make 
anthologies or reprint whole works; but these problems affect all 
disciplines equally.

      Best,
      Peter




----------
Peter Suber, Professor of Philosophy
Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, 47374
Email peter.suber AT earlham.edu
Web http://www.earlham.edu/~peters

Editor, Free Online Scholarship Newsletter
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/
Editor, FOS News blog
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html

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Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: "Margaret H. Freeman" <freemamh AT lavc.edu>
Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2003 07:40:05 -0400


Threading: Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from peters AT earlham.edu
      • This Message

On 6/10/03 5:44 PM, "Peter Suber" <peters AT earlham.edu> 
wrote:

> At 04:42 PM 6/10/2003 -0400, you wrote:
>> On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT 
ecs.soton.ac.uk> wrote:
>>=20
>>> > So copyright is certainly not the problem.
>>=20
>> That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
>> humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive 
and
>> sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.
>>=20
>> Margaret
>=20
> Margaret,
>      Could you elaborate on this a bit further?  I can understand why art
> historians and art critics have problems.  They want to reproduce entire =
works
> to illustrate their points.  But I don't see any comparable problem for
> scholarship in literature, history, philosophy, or religion.  Citing orig=
inal
> literature, and quoting passages in fair use, do not violate copyright.
>      I can also see why copyright would thwart those who want to make
> anthologies or reprint whole works; but these problems affect all discipl=
ines
> equally.=20
>=20
>      Best,
>      Peter
>=20
>=20
Sorry I wasn=B9t more explicit. By =B3literature=B2 I was thinking of creative
writings, such as poetry, fiction, drama, the texts of which do not get int=
o
the public domain for years (and the time has recently been increased
further). Publishers consider one poem a =B3complete=B2 work (as opposed to a
book of poems), which means if you want to cite an entire poem, it is not
considered fair use. I know this could be debated, but scholars tend not to
be willing to take on the publishers on their own. Even in scholarly
articles, we have to pay fees (e.g. $200 for one poem by Sylvia Plath), and
the restrictions are heavy (no publishing elsewhere or loading on websites)=
.

Margaret


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Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Julia Bolton Holloway <juliana AT tin.it>
Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2003 05:06:53 +0200


Threading: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
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Why? Long ago, I became an independent scholar with my own websites, 
http://www.umilta.net and http://www.florin.ms, the second for the 
Proceedings our our international congresses, The City and the Book, on 
Florence and its library holdings. It costs almost nothing to have these 
websites, without commercial pop-ups even, for which service I pay the 
largest amount. I can put up the entire Latin text of St Birgitta's 
Revelationes, materials on Julian of Norwich, Terence's Comedies, just this 
past week, a whole book of essays, 'Sweet New Style: Brunetto Latino, Dante 
Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer', that I wrote ten years ago and had not got 
around to getting published when in the convent, so much else. I have 
created a house style that is readable, using point 14 and the layout of 
medieval manuscripts which were a memory system, alternating reds and blues 
for capitals, the ordinary type being in grey against a white background. I 
use no java or frames, wanting fellow monastics on low budgets with old 
programmes to have equal access. I also give such monastics CDs of the 
websites (a CD costs only .50 cents). Cost is not a problem with electronic 
publishing. What I suspect in the academic world is that middlemen in the 
university structures are getting their take for the budgetting, etc.

At 16:42 10.06.03 -0400, you wrote:
>On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT 
ecs.soton.ac.uk> wrote:
>
> > So copyright is certainly not the problem.
>
>That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
>humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive and
>sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.
>
>Margaret

'But love was without beginning and is and ever shall be without any end.' 
Julian of Norwich, Showing of Love 20.

'Do not cause terror, for God condemns this. Someone says " I live", 
and 
the bread is taken from his mouth. Another says, "This is power", and 

again, "I will snatch for myself what I see". But he who says this is 

condemned. The one who wins is, instead, he who gives to the other what he 
needs. Nothing of all that we plan succeeds, because it is God who reigns. 
Live therefore in the house of kindness and people will come freely to you 
with gifts. Written by Ptah-Hotep in Egypt, 3550 B.C.

Julia Bolton Holloway, Hermit of the Holy Family
Biblioteca e Bottega Fioretta Mazzei, 'English Cemetery'
Piazzale Donatello, 38, 50132 FIRENZE, ITALY
juliana AT tin.it http://www.umilta.net http://www.florin.ms/aleph.html

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Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: Julia Bolton Holloway <juliana AT tin.it>
Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2003 17:11:56 +0200


Threading: Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from peters AT earlham.edu
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             Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from freemamh AT lavc.edu

Yes, Margaret does have a point here. I had wanted to publish Richard 
Wilbur's poem, 'Love Calls us to Things of the World', on the web. He gave 
his permission. But his publisher required a huge fee. Ironically the poem 
is about clothing beggars in the clean white shirts on washing lines, etc! 
This means not nearly as many people know the poem as should. In Art 
History this extends back further than modern poetry. The Italian 
government requires huge fees for the publication of Italian medieval, 
Renaissance art on the web. Again limiting these works to an elite few, 
when certainly the medieval ones were intended for all.

At 07:40 11.06.03 -0400, you wrote:
>On 6/10/03 5:44 PM, "Peter Suber" <peters AT earlham.edu> 
wrote:
>At 04:42 PM 6/10/2003 -0400, you wrote:
>On 6/10/03 1:26 PM, "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT 
ecs.soton.ac.uk> wrote:
>
> > So copyright is certainly not the problem.
>
>That may be true for certain disciplines, but I can attest that in the
>humanities, where we cite original literature, we find it expensive and
>sometimes impossible to make our research internet accessible.
>
>Margaret
>
>Margaret,
>      Could you elaborate on this a bit further?  I can understand why art 
> historians and art critics have problems.  They want to reproduce entire 
> works to illustrate their points.  But I don't see any comparable problem 
> for scholarship in literature, history, philosophy, or religion.  Citing 
> original literature, and quoting passages in fair use, do not violate 
> copyright.
>      I can also see why copyright would thwart those who want to make 
> anthologies or reprint whole works; but these problems affect all 
> disciplines equally.
>
>      Best,
>      Peter
>
>
>Sorry I wasn t more explicit. By literature I was thinking of creative 
>writings, such as poetry, fiction, drama, the texts of which do not get 
>into the public domain for years (and the time has recently been increased 
>further). Publishers consider one poem a complete work (as opposed to a 
>book of poems), which means if you want to cite an entire poem, it is not 
>considered fair use. I know this could be debated, but scholars tend not 
>to be willing to take on the publishers on their own. Even in scholarly 
>articles, we have to pay fees (e.g. $200 for one poem by Sylvia Plath), 
>and the restrictions are heavy (no publishing elsewhere or loading on 
>websites).
>
>Margaret


Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003

From: "Margaret H. Freeman" <freemamh AT lavc.edu>
Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2003 14:54:31 -0400


Threading: Re: [BOAI] Re: THES article on research access Friday June 6 2003 from juliana AT tin.it
      • This Message

On 6/11/03 11:11 AM, "Julia Bolton Holloway" <juliana AT 
tin.it> wrote:

> This means not nearly as many people know the poem as should.

Julia makes a good point. (And how ironic that poets like Wilbur don't have
financial control over how their own work gets disseminated.) I work mostly
with the poetry of Emily Dickinson which, although written in the nineteenth
century, is _still_ under copyright and likely to remain so for the
indefinite future. The irony here is that the current popularity and
therefore reproductions (a sizeable income for publishers) of Dickinson's
poetry have come in no small measure from the scholars and teachers who have
disseminated and promoted knowledge of her work.

I know this is complicating Steve's attempts to institutionalize scholarly
archiving, but isn't there some way those of us affected by such copyright
restrictions can mount a collective argument as to why publishers would
benefit and not lose from such archiving?

Margaret



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