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[BOAI] =?iso-8859-1?q?Fwd=3A_=5BA2k=5D_Luisa_Fernanda_Guzm=E1n_Mej=EDa?= =?iso-8859-1?q?=3A_Development_Agenda_in_WIPO=2C_the_turn_for_libr?= =?iso-8859-1?q?aries_and_archives?=

From: Carolina Rossini <carolina.rossini AT gmail.com>
Date: Tue, 3 Dec 2013 17:12:05 -0500


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---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Manon Ress <manon.ress AT keionline.org>
Date: Tue, Dec 3, 2013 at 2:25 PM
Subject: [A2k] Luisa Fernanda Guzm=E1n Mej=EDa: Development Agenda in WIPO,=
 the
turn for libraries and archives
To: a2k discuss list <a2k AT lists.keionline.org>


Development Agenda in WIPO, the turn for libraries and archives

http://www.digitalrightslac.net/en/agenda-para-el-desarrollo-en-ompi-turno-=
para-bibliotecas-y-archivos/

By Luisa Fernanda Guzm=E1n Mej=EDa

After approving the Marrakesh Treaty, the World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) will resume the Development Agenda. Now is turn for
reviewing the needs of libraries and archives, but will there be political
will to do so?
Libraries and archives have the mission to collect, preserve and provide
access to knowledge and information. Undoubtedly, they are guarantors of
fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and access to information.
These institutions contribute for improving education, research and
employment, and as a source of entertainment; moreover, they promote the
flow of ideas and freedom of thought, creativity and innovation. Due to
their important role, they are central axis of cultural ecosystem.

Although libraries invest annually about 24 billion dollars in books,
magazines, audiovisual and digital content, and although they serve over
1,000 million users worldwide, there is no clear legal scenario that allows
them to perform basic activities of their mission. In some countries, for
instance, the public material lending requires the express prior
authorization of copyright holders. This puts out libraries in a vulnerable
position by implying that their activities are illegal since it is
unrealistic to request all these permissions.

The absence of guarantees for the exercise of fundamental rights within the
copyright system, such the exceptions and limitations, threatens the
effective compliance of the mission of libraries and archives, sentences
them to obsolescence and restricts them to provide their services in a
traditional consulting room, without the possibility of exploring the
potential of the digital environment. This situation is paradoxical
especially in developing countries like Colombia, where, in some regions,
libraries are the only form of access to books.

According to a WIPO study conducted in 2008, 21 out of 184 Member States of
the United Nations agency has no exceptions and limitations for libraries
and archives. Meanwhile, only 27 enshrine a general exception that is not
very useful. Nowadays the activity of these institutions practically depend
on the =93goodwill=94 of authors and rightholders, who have been =93so kind=
=94 to
not bring suit for the works=92 uses carried out in most of the countries i=
n
the region.

This situation will be analyzed precisely in the WIPO Standing Committee on
Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR), the committee responsible for these
subjects, which will meet from 16 to 20 December in Geneva.

In Search for a Solution

In 2004, Brazil and Argentina proposed the Development Agenda in order to
integrate the UN Millennium Development Goals into all WIPO activities.
That same year, Chile proposed advancing a WIPO consensus on minimum
standards to guarantee libraries, archives and the education system to
fulfill their mission, and for people with disabilities to exercise their
rights. In this context, exceptions and limitations should be considered in
all legislation for restoring the balance between rights of rightholders
and users.

The Interests at Stakes: Proposals and Positions on an International
Instrument for Libraries and Archives

In 2008, under the Development Agenda=92s =93umbrella=94, Brazil, Chile,
Nicaragua and Uruguay posed a work proposal that followed the original
Chilean initiative.

In 2011, this work-plan was completed on two different regulatory proposals=
:

a. The African Group submitted a project, with a holistic approach, which
recommended a treaty for benefiting people with disabilities, teaching and
research institutions, and libraries and archives. However, it was decided
to address them separately at WIPO.
b. Brazil, Ecuador and Uruguay introduced a complementary proposal to the
African Group project, which incorporates the considerations of a sectoral
document (result of the effort of the International Federation of Library
Associations =96IFLA=96, the International Council on Archives =96ICA=96, t=
he
Electronic Information for Libraries =96EIFL=96 and Innovarte) that Brazil =
had
previously submitted to WIPO.

These treaty proposals seek essentially to establishing minimum legal
guarantees within the copyright system for libraries and archives to
preserve the works (including digitization), reproduce and provide copies,
facilitate legal deposit, lending and parallel import, cross-border uses,
use of orphan works, withdrawn or retracted right; circumvent technological
protection measures, carry out translations and make explicit the liability
limitation for these entities for the illegal acts that their users may
commit.

It is worth stating that the Marrakesh Treaty already solved one of the
great difficulties of libraries and archives when providing services to
people with visual disabilities. This, however, requires that these
institutions are considered authorized entities in the treaty national
implementation.

Despite calls for a treaty=92s signing, the truth is that the instrument
nature is not yet defined. This reflects the tensions between developing
countries (in favor of a treaty) and developed countries, which undoubtedly
seem to lean towards a non-binding instrument (recommendation, model law,
etc.). The United States has expressed its reluctance to negotiate a treaty
on the subject. The delegate has argued that their legislation already
included specific exceptions and limitations for libraries, and that they
have the fair use doctrine.

Meanwhile, the industry, led by the International Publishers Association
(IPA), has argued that existing flexibilities are not only adequate but
also preferable. There is no need for new binding international rules that
restrict freedom of development of locally adapted exceptions. Similarly,
the representative of this organization (that sometime has even worked
jointly with IFLA) has stated that the circumstances for the Marrakesh
Treaty=92s adoption were special and unique due to simple humanitarian
reasons, which in his opinion are not extendable to the libraries and
archives case.

Next meeting at WIPO

The agenda for December at WIPO SCCR involves working on a proposed treaty
to protect broadcasting organizations and two other proposals on exceptions
and limitations (for libraries and educational uses). For that reason, we
believe the first obstacle to be overcome will be the definition of the
agenda.

Group B countries or developed countries (the European Union and the U.S.)
want to prioritize the treaty for the protection of broadcasting
organizations. Precisely the Central Europe and the Baltic States Group
(CEBS) proposed a roadmap for expediting the works of the SCCR by refining
the text and with an eye on a diplomatic conference in 2015. Meanwhile, the
Development Agenda Group (Brazil) and the African Group do not share this
approach. They prefer to give priority to the exceptions and limitations.
But it is likely that the balance tilts the other side.

Many believe that WIPO was very worn out after Marrakesh=92s negotiation,
hence it will need a break to come back to the Development Agenda=92s issue=
s,
more controversial among members because it implies building a guarantee
system for users. Most likely, the broadcasting treaty will be used to
create such space.

Karisma Foundation will attend this WIPO session to strengthen the civil
society participation in the region and to monitor the position of the
Colombian government, which unlike countries like Argentina, Brazil, Chile,
Ecuador and Uruguay has not been very active on such relevant issues.

Luisa Fernanda Mejia Guzman is a lawyer and researcher at Karisma
Foundation=92s Law, Internet and Society Group. Twitter:  AT  lfdagm


--
Manon Ress, Ph.D.
Knowledge Ecology International, KEI
manon.ress AT keionline.org, tel.: +1 202 332 2670
www.keionline.org
_______________________________________________
A2k mailing list
A2k AT lists.keionline.org
http://lists.keionline.org/mailman/listinfo/a2k_lists.keionline.org



--=20
*Carolina Rossini*
*Project Director, Latin America Resource Center*
Open Technology Institute
*New America Foundation*
//
http://carolinarossini.net/
+ 1 6176979389
*carolina.rossini AT gmail.com*
skype: carolrossini
 AT carolinarossini

--001a11c30a683aaf5b04eca8968d
Content-Type: text/html; charset=windows-1252
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

<div dir=3D"ltr"><br><br><div 
class=3D"gmail_quote">---------- Forwarded me=
ssage ----------<br>From: <b 
class=3D"gmail_sendername">Manon Ress</b> <spa=
n dir=3D"ltr">&lt;<a href=3D"mailto:manon.ress AT 
keionline.org">manon.ress AT ke=
ionline.org</a>&gt;</span><br>
Date: Tue, Dec 3, 2013 at 2:25 PM<br>Subject: [A2k] Luisa Fernanda 
Guzm=E1n=
 Mej=EDa: Development Agenda in WIPO, the turn for libraries and archives<b=
r>To: a2k discuss list &lt;<a href=3D"mailto:a2k AT 
lists.keionline.org">a2k AT l=
ists.keionline.org</a>&gt;<br>
<br><br>Development Agenda in WIPO, the turn for libraries and 
archives<br>
<br>
<a 
href=3D"http://www.digitalrightslac.net/en/agenda-para-el-desarrollo-en-=
ompi-turno-para-bibliotecas-y-archivos/" 
target=3D"_blank">http://www.digit=
alrightslac.net/en/agenda-para-el-desarrollo-en-ompi-turno-para-bibliotecas=
-y-archivos/</a><br>

<br>
By Luisa Fernanda Guzm=E1n Mej=EDa<br>
<br>
After approving the Marrakesh Treaty, the World Intellectual Property<br>
Organization (WIPO) will resume the Development Agenda. Now is turn 
for<br>
reviewing the needs of libraries and archives, but will there be political<=
br>
will to do so?<br>
Libraries and archives have the mission to collect, preserve and provide<br=
>
access to knowledge and information. Undoubtedly, they are guarantors of<br=
>
fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and access to information.=
<br>
These institutions contribute for improving education, research and<br>
employment, and as a source of entertainment; moreover, they promote the<br=
>
flow of ideas and freedom of thought, creativity and innovation. Due 
to<br>
their important role, they are central axis of cultural ecosystem.<br>
<br>
Although libraries invest annually about 24 billion dollars in books,<br>
magazines, audiovisual and digital content, and although they serve over<br=
>
1,000 million users worldwide, there is no clear legal scenario that allows=
<br>
them to perform basic activities of their mission. In some countries, for<b=
r>
instance, the public material lending requires the express prior<br>
authorization of copyright holders. This puts out libraries in a vulnerable=
<br>
position by implying that their activities are illegal since it is<br>
unrealistic to request all these permissions.<br>
<br>
The absence of guarantees for the exercise of fundamental rights within the=
<br>
copyright system, such the exceptions and limitations, threatens the<br>
effective compliance of the mission of libraries and archives, sentences<br=
>
them to obsolescence and restricts them to provide their services in 
a<br>
traditional consulting room, without the possibility of exploring the<br>
potential of the digital environment. This situation is paradoxical<br>
especially in developing countries like Colombia, where, in some regions,<b=
r>
libraries are the only form of access to books.<br>
<br>
According to a WIPO study conducted in 2008, 21 out of 184 Member States of=
<br>
the United Nations agency has no exceptions and limitations for libraries<b=
r>
and archives. Meanwhile, only 27 enshrine a general exception that is not<b=
r>
very useful. Nowadays the activity of these institutions practically depend=
<br>
on the =93goodwill=94 of authors and rightholders, who have been =93so kind=
=94 to<br>
not bring suit for the works=92 uses carried out in most of the countries i=
n<br>
the region.<br>
<br>
This situation will be analyzed precisely in the WIPO Standing Committee on=
<br>
Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR), the committee responsible for these<br=
>
subjects, which will meet from 16 to 20 December in Geneva.<br>
<br>
In Search for a Solution<br>
<br>
In 2004, Brazil and Argentina proposed the Development Agenda in order to<b=
r>
integrate the UN Millennium Development Goals into all WIPO 
activities.<br>
That same year, Chile proposed advancing a WIPO consensus on minimum<br>
standards to guarantee libraries, archives and the education system 
to<br>
fulfill their mission, and for people with disabilities to exercise their<b=
r>
rights. In this context, exceptions and limitations should be considered in=
<br>
all legislation for restoring the balance between rights of rightholders<br=
>
and users.<br>
<br>
The Interests at Stakes: Proposals and Positions on an International<br>
Instrument for Libraries and Archives<br>
<br>
In 2008, under the Development Agenda=92s =93umbrella=94, Brazil, Chile,<br=
>
Nicaragua and Uruguay posed a work proposal that followed the 
original<br>
Chilean initiative.<br>
<br>
In 2011, this work-plan was completed on two different regulatory proposals=
:<br>
<br>
a. The African Group submitted a project, with a holistic approach, which<b=
r>
recommended a treaty for benefiting people with disabilities, teaching and<=
br>
research institutions, and libraries and archives. However, it was decided<=
br>
to address them separately at WIPO.<br>
b. Brazil, Ecuador and Uruguay introduced a complementary proposal to the<b=
r>
African Group project, which incorporates the considerations of a sectoral<=
br>
document (result of the effort of the International Federation of Library<b=
r>
Associations =96IFLA=96, the International Council on Archives =96ICA=96, t=
he<br>
Electronic Information for Libraries =96EIFL=96 and Innovarte) that Brazil =
had<br>
previously submitted to WIPO.<br>
<br>
These treaty proposals seek essentially to establishing minimum legal<br>
guarantees within the copyright system for libraries and archives to<br>
preserve the works (including digitization), reproduce and provide copies,<=
br>
facilitate legal deposit, lending and parallel import, cross-border uses,<b=
r>
use of orphan works, withdrawn or retracted right; circumvent technological=
<br>
protection measures, carry out translations and make explicit the liability=
<br>
limitation for these entities for the illegal acts that their users 
may<br>
commit.<br>
<br>
It is worth stating that the Marrakesh Treaty already solved one of 
the<br>
great difficulties of libraries and archives when providing services 
to<br>
people with visual disabilities. This, however, requires that these<br>
institutions are considered authorized entities in the treaty 
national<br>
implementation.<br>
<br>
Despite calls for a treaty=92s signing, the truth is that the instrument<br=
>
nature is not yet defined. This reflects the tensions between developing<br=
>
countries (in favor of a treaty) and developed countries, which undoubtedly=
<br>
seem to lean towards a non-binding instrument (recommendation, model law,<b=
r>
etc.). The United States has expressed its reluctance to negotiate a treaty=
<br>
on the subject. The delegate has argued that their legislation 
already<br>
included specific exceptions and limitations for libraries, and that they<b=
r>
have the fair use doctrine.<br>
<br>
Meanwhile, the industry, led by the International Publishers Association<br=
>
(IPA), has argued that existing flexibilities are not only adequate 
but<br>
also preferable. There is no need for new binding international rules that<=
br>
restrict freedom of development of locally adapted exceptions. Similarly,<b=
r>
the representative of this organization (that sometime has even 
worked<br>
jointly with IFLA) has stated that the circumstances for the 
Marrakesh<br>
Treaty=92s adoption were special and unique due to simple 
humanitarian<br>
reasons, which in his opinion are not extendable to the libraries and<br>
archives case.<br>
<br>
Next meeting at WIPO<br>
<br>
The agenda for December at WIPO SCCR involves working on a proposed treaty<=
br>
to protect broadcasting organizations and two other proposals on exceptions=
<br>
and limitations (for libraries and educational uses). For that reason, we<b=
r>
believe the first obstacle to be overcome will be the definition of 
the<br>
agenda.<br>
<br>
Group B countries or developed countries (the European Union and the U.S.)<=
br>
want to prioritize the treaty for the protection of broadcasting<br>
organizations. Precisely the Central Europe and the Baltic States 
Group<br>
(CEBS) proposed a roadmap for expediting the works of the SCCR by refining<=
br>
the text and with an eye on a diplomatic conference in 2015. Meanwhile, the=
<br>
Development Agenda Group (Brazil) and the African Group do not share this<b=
r>
approach. They prefer to give priority to the exceptions and limitations.<b=
r>
But it is likely that the balance tilts the other side.<br>
<br>
Many believe that WIPO was very worn out after Marrakesh=92s negotiation,<b=
r>
hence it will need a break to come back to the Development Agenda=92s issue=
s,<br>
more controversial among members because it implies building a guarantee<br=
>
system for users. Most likely, the broadcasting treaty will be used 
to<br>
create such space.<br>
<br>
Karisma Foundation will attend this WIPO session to strengthen the civil<br=
>
society participation in the region and to monitor the position of 
the<br>
Colombian government, which unlike countries like Argentina, Brazil, Chile,=
<br>
Ecuador and Uruguay has not been very active on such relevant issues.<br>
<br>
Luisa Fernanda Mejia Guzman is a lawyer and researcher at Karisma<br>
Foundation=92s Law, Internet and Society Group. Twitter:  AT  lfdagm<br>
<span class=3D"HOEnZb"><font 
color=3D"#888888"><br>
<br>
--<br>
Manon Ress, Ph.D.<br>
Knowledge Ecology International, KEI<br>
<a href=3D"mailto:manon.ress AT keionline.org">manon.ress AT 
keionline.org</a>, t=
el.: <a href=3D"tel:%2B1%20202%20332%202670" 
value=3D"+12023322670">+1 202 =
332 2670</a><br>
<a href=3D"http://www.keionline.org" 
target=3D"_blank">www.keionline.org</a=
><br>
_______________________________________________<br>
A2k mailing list<br>
<a href=3D"mailto:A2k AT lists.keionline.org">A2k AT 
lists.keionline.org</a><br>
<a 
href=3D"http://lists.keionline.org/mailman/listinfo/a2k_lists.keionline.=
org" 
target=3D"_blank">http://lists.keionline.org/mailman/listinfo/a2k_list=
s.keionline.org</a><br>
</font></span></div><br><br 
clear=3D"all"><div><br></div>-- 
<br><div><div s=
tyle=3D"font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.666666984558105px;backgro=
und-color:rgb(255,255,255)"><b>Carolina 
Rossini</b>=A0</div><div style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(136,136,136);font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.66666698455=
8105px;background-color:rgb(255,255,255)">
<i>Project Director, Latin America Resource 
Center</i></div><div style=3D"c=
olor:rgb(136,136,136);font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.66666698455=
8105px;background-color:rgb(255,255,255)">Open Technology 
Institute</div>
<div 
style=3D"font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.666666984558105px;b=
ackground-color:rgb(255,255,255)"><font 
color=3D"#330099"><b>New America Fo=
undation</b></font></div><div 
style=3D"color:rgb(136,136,136);font-family:a=
rial,sans-serif;font-size:12.666666984558105px;background-color:rgb(255,255=
,255)">
//</div><div 
style=3D"color:rgb(136,136,136);font-family:arial,sans-serif;f=
ont-size:12.666666984558105px;background-color:rgb(255,255,255)"><div><font=
 color=3D"#3333ff"><a 
href=3D"http://carolinarossini.net/" style=3D"color:r=
gb(17,85,204)" 
target=3D"_blank">http://carolinarossini.net/</a></font></di=
v>
<div><font color=3D"#666666"><a 
value=3D"+16176979389" style=3D"color:rgb(1=
7,85,204)">+ 1 6176979389</a></font><br><font 
color=3D"#666666">*</font><a =
href=3D"mailto:carolina.rossini AT gmail.com" 
style=3D"color:rgb(102,102,102)"=
 target=3D"_blank">carolina.rossini AT gmail.com</a><font 
color=3D"#666666">*<=
/font></div>
</div><div 
style=3D"color:rgb(136,136,136);font-family:arial,sans-serif;fon=
t-size:12.666666984558105px;background-color:rgb(255,255,255)"><font 
color=
=3D"#666666">skype: carolrossini</font></div><div 
style=3D"color:rgb(136,13=
6,136);font-family:arial,sans-serif;font-size:12.666666984558105px;backgrou=
nd-color:rgb(255,255,255)">
<font color=3D"#666666"> AT 
carolinarossini</font></div></div><div><br></div>
</div>

--001a11c30a683aaf5b04eca8968d--

        
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