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[BOAI] Origin of "green" and "gold" OA
From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
On 2013-04-18, at 11:59 PM, Shigeki Sugita <ssugita AT chiba-u.jp> wrote: > Someone please teach me about the original meanings or implications of ↵ "green" and "gold" at the time of the first BOAI ↵ recommendation. Why was self-archving named as "green" and OA ↵ journals as "gold"? > > green: green light? "RoMEO-green"? > gold: highest grade? (like "Gold Medal") The original BOAI in 2002 consisted of two strategies, BOAI-1 and BOAI-2: To achieve open access to scholarly journal literature, we recommend two ↵ complementary strategies. I. Self-Archiving: First, scholars need the tools and assistance to deposit ↵ their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives, a practice ↵ commonly called, self-archiving. When these archives conform to standards ↵ created by the Open Archives Initiative, then search engines and other tools ↵ can treat the separate archives as one. Users then need not know which archives ↵ exist or where they are located in order to find and make use of their ↵ contents. II. Open-access Journals: Second, scholars need the means to launch a new ↵ generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals ↵ that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles ↵ should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer ↵ invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. ↵ Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access ↵ to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these ↵ new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to ↵ other methods for covering their expenses. There are many alternative sources ↵ of funds for this purpose, including the foundations and governments that fund ↵ research, the universities and laboratories that employ researchers, endowments ↵ set up by discipline or institution, friends of the cause of open access, ↵ profits from the sale of add-ons to the basic texts, funds freed up by the ↵ demise or cancellation of journals charging traditional subscription or access ↵ fees, or even contributions from the researchers themselves. There is no need ↵ to favor one of these solutions over the others for all disciplines or nations, ↵ and no need to stop looking for other, creative alternatives. These were then dubbed Green OA and Gold OA, respectively, in 2004: Harnad, S., Brody, T., Vallieres, F., Carr, L., Hitchcock, S., Gingras, Y, ↵ Oppenheim, C., Stamerjohanns, H., & Hilf, E. (2004) The Access/Impact ↵ Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access. Serials Review 30. ↵ Shorter version: The green and the gold roads to Open Access. Nature Web Focus. ↵ None of this has anything to do with "highest grade" or "Gold ↵ Medals". And SHERPA Romeo's colour-code is regrettably (but incorrigibly, despite ↵ repeated requests across the years) at odds with the BOAI distinction, because ↵ it arbitrarily restricts "green" to publishers who endorse the ↵ self-archiving of both unrefereed preprints and refereed postprints, and ↵ "blue" for publishers who endorse the self-archiving of regereed ↵ postprints only, but not preprints: Both SHERPA/Romeo "green" and ↵ SHERPA/Romeo "blue" are of course BOAI Green. Metaphorically, one can say that Green OA is an ecological, self-help solution, ↵ on the part of the research community. Gold OA is a "de luxe" ↵ solution that also depends on the conversion of publishers to another ↵ cost-recovery model. My own view is that Globally Green OA mandates will first provide 100% OA and ↵ then induce publishers to convert to Gold OA (at a fair price: Fair Gold). Stevan Harnad
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