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[BOAI] Harnad Evidence to BIS Select Committee Inquiry on Open Access

From: Stevan Harnad <amsciforum AT gmail.com>
Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2013 16:39:19 -0500


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*Evidence to BIS Select Committee Inquiry on Open Access*

*
*

*full text:** *http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348483/ * *

*
*

*Stevan Harnad*

*
*

*Executive Summary:*

*
*

*E1.* *UK worldwide leadership in OA.* The UK has led the world OA movement
ever since the historic recommendation of the 2004 (Gibson) Select
Committee<http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmscte=
ch/399/39903.htm>to
mandate Green OA self-archiving. But the new BIS/Finch
Committee recommendation<http://www.researchinfonet.org/wp-content/uploads/=
2012/06/Finch-Group-report-FINAL-VERSION.pdf>to
prefer and fund Gold OA pre-emptively and unilaterally, and to
restrict
UK authors' journal choice -- and the resultant RCUK OA
policy<http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/Pages/outputs.aspx>-- are having
unanticipated and unintended negative consequences, both for
UK OA and for worldwide OA.


*E2.* *Unintended negative consequences.* The UK's new policy of funding
Gold OA pre-emptively and unilaterally in preference to strengthening the
UK's existing Green OA mandate model is neither affordable nor sustainable,
and the model is not being (and will not be) followed by the rest of the
world<http://sparceurope.org/analysis-of-funder-open-access-policies-around=
-the-world/>.
It will not only waste scarce UK research funds needlessly and provoke
resentment and non-compliance among UK researchers, but it will have
perverse effects on publisher policy worldwide, encouraging publishers to
offer hybrid Gold OA (i.e., institutional subscription plus optional author
Gold OA for an extra fee) as well as encouraging publishers to adopt or
lengthen Green OA embargoes in order to makes sure UK authors must choose
the paid Gold option.


*E3.* *Mandate and monitor immediate, unembargoed deposit.* Irrespective of
what funds the UK elects to spend on paying pre-emptively for Gold OA while
subscriptions still need to be paid, and independent of embargo policy, the
UK should (1) mandate and enforce immediate deposit of the author's
peer-reviewed final draft of every journal article in the author's
institutional repository immediately upon acceptance for publication and
(2) designate repository deposit as the sole mechanism for submitting
publications for performance review and research assessment.


*E4.* *Link compliance to funding.* Compliance with this immediate-deposit
requirement has to be systematically monitored and enforced, with
consequences for non-compliance (non-funding and non-renewal of grants), as
is now being done to reinforce Green OA mandates worldwide.


*E5.* *Preserve researchers=92 journal choice.* At the same time, the UK
should merely urge strongly, rather than require, that the
immediate-deposit be made immediately OA, rather than embargoed. This
restores authors=92 free choice of journal. It frees authors from having to
publish in journals they don=92t want to publish in. It frees authors from
having to pay for Gold OA if they do not wish to (or can=92t). It frees
authors from having to provide CC-BY if they do not wish to (or can=92t). I=
t
ensures that 100% of RCUK-funded research output is deposited.

*
*

*E7.* *Facilitated eprint requests during embargos.* For whatever deposits
are not made immediately OA, the repositories have the automated
email-eprint-request Button that allows individual users to request =97 and
authors free to choose whether or not to provide =97 an individual eprint o=
f
a Closed Access deposit with just one click each. (This is not OA but
=93Almost-OA.=94)


*E8. ID/OA mandate is globally scalable.* The ID/OA mandate allows all
funders and all institutions, all over the world, to mandate
immediate-deposit (and to provide at least Almost-OA) to all research,
irrespective of where it=92s published and whether or how long it=92s
embargoed. The Almost-OA Button tides over research needs during embargos.


*E9. Keystroke mandate.* Sixty percent of
journals<http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/statistics.php>already endorse
immediate Green OA. Hence ID/OA not only generates at least
60% immediate Green OA plus 40% Almost-OA, but once ID/OA is adopted
worldwide, it will usher in the inevitable and well-deserved death of all
OA embargoes, under the growing natural peer-to-peer pressure for OA among
researchers. OA is -- and always was -- just a matter of keystrokes.


*E10. Optimal and inevitable outcome.* The UK should accordingly mandate
the keystrokes, now, and the rest will take care of itself, as a natural
matter of course. Focusing instead on Gold, Gold funds, CC-BY, copyright,
and embargoes will delay for yet another decade the obvious, optimal,
inevitable (and long overdue) outcome for refereed research in the online
age that has already been within reach for decades: Free online access for
all users.


*E11. Priorities.* Free online access for all users (not just subscribers)
is urgently needed, and extremely beneficial to all research and
researchers =96 both authors and users -- because it puts an end to
access-denial. Text-mining, re-mix and republishing rights are very
important in a few fields and will be useful in many fields, but they are
not nearly as important or urgent as free online access is today -- and
certainly not worth paying pre-emptive Gold OA fees for.


*E12. Grasp what is already within immediate reach.* Once Green OA has
prevailed universally and induced a leveraged transition to Gold OA, as
described below, authors will be able to provide as much CC-BY as they
wish. But insisting instead on paying for CC-BY now, at the expense of
losing the cost-free Green OA that is already within reach, is simply
asking for another 10 years in the desert, lacking both free online access
and CC-BY.

*
*

*E13. Unilateral UK Gold is the losing choice in a Prisoner=92s Dilemma.* I=
f
the UK unilaterally mandates Gold OA Publishing (with author publication
charges) today, instead of first (effectively) mandating Green OA
self-archiving (at no added cost) then the UK has made the losing choice in
a non-forced-choice Prisoner's Dilemma:




Unilateral Green (rest of world)

Unilateral Gold (rest of world)

*Unilateral Green (UK only)*

*win**/*win**

*win*/lose

*Unilateral Gold (UK only)*

*> lose*/win <

*win**/*win**



"If OA were adopted worldwide, the net benefits of Gold OA would exceed
those of Green OA. However, we are not in an OA world... At the
institutional level, during a transitional period *when subscriptions are
maintained, the cost of unilaterally adopting Green OA is much lower than
the cost of Gold OA* =96 with Green OA self-archiving costing average
institutions sampled around one-fifth the amount that Gold OA might cost,
and as little as one-tenth as much for the most research intensive
university. Hence, we conclude that *the most affordable and cost-effective
means of moving towards OA is through Green OA, which can be adopted
unilaterally at the funder, institutional, sectoral and national levels at
relatively little cost*." [emphasis added]


 Houghton, John W. & Swan, Alma (2013) Planting the green seeds for a
golden harvest: Comments and clarifications on =93Going for
Gold=94<http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january13/houghton/01houghton.html>
*D-Lib Magazine* 19(1/2)

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<p class=3D"MsoNormal" align=3D"center" 
style=3D"text-align:center"><b><spa=
n 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">Evidence to=
 BIS
Select Committee Inquiry on Open Access</span></b></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNormal=
" align=3D"center" 
style=3D"text-align:center"><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:=
12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></b></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" align=3D"center" 
style=3D"text-align:center"><span s=
tyle=3D"line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><b>full 
text:</b><b style=3D"fo=
nt-size:12pt">=A0</b></span><a 
href=3D"http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348483/">=
http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/348483/</a>=A0<b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt=
;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">=A0</span></b></p>
<p class=3D"MsoNormal" align=3D"center" 
style=3D"text-align:center"><b><spa=
n 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span>=
</b></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" align=3D"center" 
style=3D"text-align:center"><b><spa=
n 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">Stevan
Harnad</span></b></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
align=3D"center" style=3D"text-=
align:center"><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-fami=
ly:Arial"><br></span></b></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"text-align:lef=
t">














</p><p class=3D"MsoNormal"><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:1=
07%;font-family:Arial">Executive 
Summary:</span></b><span style=3D"font-siz=
e:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
</span></p><p class=3D"MsoNor=
mal">
<b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br>=
</span></b></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E1.</span></b><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>UK worldwide l=
eadership in OA.</b> The UK has led the world OA movement
ever since the historic recommendation of the <a 
href=3D"http://www.publica=
tions.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmsctech/399/39903.htm">2004 
(Gibs=
on) Select Committee</a> to
mandate Green OA self-archiving. But the new <a 
href=3D"http://www.research=
infonet.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Finch-Group-report-FINAL-VERSION.pdf=
">BIS/Finch Committee recommendation</a>
to prefer and fund Gold OA pre-emptively and unilaterally, and to restrict =
UK
authors&#39; journal choice -- and the resultant <a 
href=3D"http://www.rcuk=
.ac.uk/research/Pages/outputs.aspx">RCUK OA policy</a> -- are 
having
unanticipated and unintended negative consequences, both for UK OA and for
worldwide OA. </span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt=
"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br><=
/span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E2.</span></b><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>Unintended neg=
ative consequences.</b> The UK&#39;s new policy of funding
Gold OA pre-emptively and unilaterally in preference to strengthening the U=
K&#39;s
existing Green OA mandate model is neither affordable nor sustainable, and =
the
model <a 
href=3D"http://sparceurope.org/analysis-of-funder-open-access-poli=
cies-around-the-world/">is not being (and will not be) followed by the 
rest=
 of the world</a>. It will
not only waste scarce UK research funds needlessly and provoke resentment a=
nd
non-compliance among UK researchers, but it will have perverse effects on
publisher policy worldwide, encouraging publishers to offer hybrid Gold OA
(i.e., institutional subscription plus optional author Gold OA for an extra
fee) as well as encouraging publishers to adopt or lengthen Green OA embarg=
oes
in order to makes sure UK authors must choose the paid Gold 
option.</span><=
/p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E3.</span></b><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>Mandate and mo=
nitor immediate, unembargoed deposit.</b> Irrespective of
what funds the UK elects to spend on paying pre-emptively for Gold OA while
subscriptions still need to be paid, and independent of embargo policy, the=
 UK
should (1) mandate and enforce immediate deposit of the author&#39;s 
peer-r=
eviewed
final draft of every journal article in the author&#39;s institutional 
repo=
sitory
immediately upon acceptance for publication and (2) designate repository
deposit as the sole mechanism for submitting publications for performance
review and research assessment.</span></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"m=
argin-left:36.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-fa=
mily:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E4.</span></b><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>Link complianc=
e to funding.</b> Compliance with this immediate-deposit
requirement has to be systematically monitored and enforced, with consequen=
ces
for non-compliance (non-funding and non-renewal of grants), as is now being
done to reinforce Green OA mandates worldwide.</span></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNor=
mal" style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-heig=
ht:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E5.</span></b><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>Preserve resea=
rchers=92 journal choice.</b> At the same time, the UK
should merely urge strongly, rather than require, that the immediate-deposi=
t be
made immediately OA, rather than embargoed. This restores authors=92 free c=
hoice
of journal. It frees authors from having to publish in journals they don=92=
t want
to publish in. It frees authors from having to pay for Gold OA if they do n=
ot
wish to (or can=92t). It frees authors from having to provide CC-BY if they=
 do
not wish to (or can=92t). It ensures that 100% of RCUK-funded research outp=
ut is
deposited.=A0</span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"=
><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br=
></span></b></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span s=
tyle=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"></span><b><spa=
n 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E7.</span><=
/b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
<b>Fa=
cilitated eprint requests during embargos.</b> For whatever deposits
are not made immediately OA, the repositories have the automated
email-eprint-request Button that allows individual users to request =97 and
authors free to choose whether or not to provide =97 an individual eprint o=
f a
Closed Access deposit with just one click each. (This is not OA but
=93Almost-OA.=94)</span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.=
0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br>=
</span></p>
















<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E8. ID/OA mandate is 
global=
ly scalable.</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;fon=
t-family:Arial"> The ID/OA mandate allows all funders and all 
institutions,=
 all over the
world, to mandate immediate-deposit (and to provide at least Almost-OA) to =
all
research, irrespective of where it=92s published and whether or how long it=
=92s
embargoed. The Almost-OA Button tides over research needs during embargos.<=
/span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span style=
=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E9. Keystroke 
mandate.</spa=
n></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> =
<a href=3D"http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/statistics.php">Sixty 
percent of j=
ournals</a> already endorse immediate Green OA. Hence
ID/OA not only generates at least 60% immediate Green OA plus 40% Almost-OA=
,
but once ID/OA is adopted worldwide, it will usher in the inevitable and
well-deserved death of all OA embargoes, under the growing natural peer-to-=
peer
pressure for OA among researchers. OA is -- and always was -- just a matter=
 of
keystrokes.</span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><=
span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></sp=
an></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E10. Optimal and 
inevitable=
 outcome.</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-f=
amily:Arial"> The UK should accordingly mandate the keystrokes, now, 
and th=
e rest
will take care of itself, as a natural matter of course. Focusing instead o=
n
Gold, Gold funds, CC-BY, copyright, and embargoes will delay for yet anothe=
r
decade the obvious, optimal, inevitable (and long overdue) outcome for refe=
reed
research in the online age that has already been within reach for decades: =
Free
online access for all users.</span></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"marg=
in-left:36.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-famil=
y:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E11. 
Priorities.</span></b>=
<span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> 
Free o=
nline
access for all users (not just subscribers) is urgently needed, and extreme=
ly
beneficial to all research and researchers =96 both authors and users -- be=
cause
it puts an end to access-denial. Text-mining, re-mix and republishing right=
s are
very important in a few fields and will be useful in many fields, but they =
are
not nearly as important or urgent as free online access is today -- and
certainly not worth paying pre-emptive Gold OA fees 
for.</span></p><p class=
=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt=
;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-=
size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E12. Grasp what is 
already =
within immediate reach.</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-heig=
ht:107%;font-family:Arial"> Once Green OA has prevailed universally and 
ind=
uced a leveraged
transition to Gold OA, as described below, authors will be able to provide =
as
much CC-BY as they wish. But insisting instead on paying for CC-BY now, at =
the
expense of losing the cost-free Green OA that is already within reach, is
simply asking for another 10 years in the desert, lacking both free online
access and CC-BY.=A0</span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:=
36.0pt"><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Ari=
al"><br></span></b></p><p 
class=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt">=
<span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"></span>=
<b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">E13.=
 Unilateral UK Gold is the losing choice in a
Prisoner=92s Dilemma.</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12pt;line-height:1=
07%;font-family:Arial"> If the UK unilaterally mandates
Gold OA Publishing (with author publication charges) today, instead of firs=
t
(effectively) mandating Green OA self-archiving (at no added cost) then the=
 UK
has made the losing choice in a non-forced-choice Prisoner&#39;s 
Dilemma:</=
span></p><p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span style=3D=
"font-size:12pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>
















<table class=3D"MsoTableGrid" border=3D"1" 
cellspacing=3D"0" cellpadding=3D=
"0" width=3D"479" 
style=3D"width:478.8pt;margin-left:36.0pt;border-collapse=
:collapse;border:none">
 <tbody><tr>
  <td width=3D"154" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:154.25pt;border:solid bla=
ck;border:1.0pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt"><span lang=3D"EN-=
CA" 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial">=A0</span></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D"165" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:164.95pt;border:solid bla=
ck;border:1.0pt;border-left:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt"><span lang=3D"EN-=
CA" style=3D"font-family:Arial;color:green">Unilateral Green 
(rest of world=
)</span></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D"160" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:159.6pt;border:solid blac=
k;border:1.0pt;border-left:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt"><span lang=3D"EN-=
CA" style=3D"font-family:Arial;color:#ffc000">Unilateral Gold 
(rest of worl=
d)</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td width=3D"154" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:154.25pt;border:solid bla=
ck;border:1.0pt;border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt"><b><span lang=3D"=
EN-CA" style=3D"font-family:Arial;color:green">Unilateral
  Green (UK only)</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D"165" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:164.95pt;border-top:none;=
border-left:none;border-bottom:solid black;border-bottom:1.0pt;border-right=
:solid black;border-right:1.0pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt;text-align:center"=
><b><span lang=3D"EN-CA" 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:=
green">win</span></b><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;c=
olor:green">/</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;c=
olor:green">win<b></b></span></p>

  </td>
  <td width=3D"160" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:159.6pt;border-top:none;b=
order-left:none;border-bottom:solid black;border-bottom:1.0pt;border-right:=
solid black;border-right:1.0pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt;text-align:center"=
><b><span lang=3D"EN-CA" 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:=
green">win</span></b><span lang=3D"EN-CA" 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-fa=
mily:Arial">/<span 
style=3D"color:#ffc000">lose</span></span></p>

  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td width=3D"154" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:154.25pt;border:solid bla=
ck;border:1.0pt;border-top:none;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt"><b><span lang=3D"=
EN-CA" style=3D"font-family:Arial;color:#ffc000">Unilateral
  Gold (UK only)</span></b></p></td><td 
width=3D"165" valign=3D"top" style=
=3D"width:164.95pt;border-top:none;border-left:none;border-bottom:solid 
bla=
ck;border-bottom:1.0pt;border-right:solid black;border-right:1.0pt;padding:=
0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt;text-align:center"><=
b><span lang=3D"EN-CA" 
style=3D"font-family:Arial;font-size:12pt"><font col=
or=3D"#ff0000">&gt;=A0</font></span><span 
lang=3D"EN-CA" style=3D"font-fami=
ly:Arial;color:rgb(255,192,0);font-size:12pt">lose</span></b><span lang=3D"=
EN-CA" style=3D"font-family:Arial;font-size:12pt">/<span 
style=3D"color:gre=
en">win=A0</span><font 
color=3D"#ff0000">&lt;=A0</font></span></p>

  </td>
  <td width=3D"160" valign=3D"top" 
style=3D"width:159.6pt;border-top:none;b=
order-left:none;border-bottom:solid black;border-bottom:1.0pt;border-right:=
solid black;border-right:1.0pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt">
  <p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-bottom:0.0001pt;text-align:center"=
><b><span lang=3D"EN-CA" 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:=
#ffc000">win</span></b><b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial=
;color:#ffc000">/</span></b><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Ari=
al;color:#ffc000">win</span><b><span 
lang=3D"EN-CA" style=3D"font-size:12.0=
pt;font-family:Arial;color:#ffc000"></span></b></p>

  </td>
 </tr>
</tbody></table>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;fon=
t-family:Arial">=A0</span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:72.0pt"><span style=3D"font-siz=
e:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">&quot;If OA were
adopted worldwide, the net benefits of <font 
color=3D"#ffcc99">Gold OA </fo=
nt>would exceed those of Green OA.
However, we are not in an OA world... At the institutional level, during a
transitional period <b><i><u>when subscriptions are 
maintained</u>, the cos=
t of unilaterally
adopting Green OA is much lower than the cost of <font 
color=3D"#ffcc33">Go=
ld OA</font></i></b> =96 with Green
OA self-archiving costing average institutions sampled around one-fifth the
amount that Gold OA might cost, and as little as one-tenth as much for the =
most
research intensive university. Hence, we conclude that <b><i>the 
most affor=
dable and
cost-effective means of moving towards OA is through Green OA, which can be
adopted unilaterally at the funder, institutional, sectoral and national le=
vels
at relatively little cost</i></b>.&quot; [emphasis added] 
</span></p><p cla=
ss=3D"MsoNormal" style=3D"margin-left:72.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0=
pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p>

<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:108.0pt"><span style=3D"font-si=
ze:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial">=A0Houghton, John W. 
&amp; Sw=
an, Alma
(2013) </span><a 
href=3D"http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january13/houghton/01houg=
hton.html"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Ari=
al">Planting the green seeds for a golden harvest: Comments and
clarifications on =93Going for Gold=94</span></a><span 
style=3D"font-size:1=
2.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"> <i>D-Lib 
Magazine</i> 19(1/2)</s=
pan></p>



<p class=3D"MsoNormal" 
style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span style=3D"font-siz=
e:12.0pt;line-height:107%;font-family:Arial"><br></span></p><p class=3D"Mso=
Normal" style=3D"margin-left:36.0pt"><span 
style=3D"font-size:12.0pt;line-h=
eight:107%;font-family:Arial"><br>
</span></p>

<p></p>


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