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[BOAI] Gratis vs. Libre OA

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Sun, 18 Dec 2011 07:25:19 -0500



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The following commentary on Mike Carroll's posting on Taylor & Francis's =
press release is intended neither as an endorsement nor as a critique of =
T&F's (or any publisher's) gold OA offerings. It is just an attempt to =
clarify an important point about about OA needs from the standpoint of =
researchers, who are both the providers and the primary intended users =
of peer-reviewed research articles:

On 2011-12-16, at 9:42 AM, Michael Carroll wrote:

> [The T&F]  press release is misleading and should be corrected. =20
> You say that T&F is now publishing " fully Open Access 
journals",
> but unless I've misread the licensing arrangements this simply is not =
the case. =20

As far as I know, there is no such thing as "fully OA."=20

There is Gratis OA and there is Libre OA:=20
=
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/08/greengold-oa-and-gratislibre-oa=
..html

T&F are selling Gratis OA. That means (1) immediate, permanent online =
access, free for all on the Web -- to peer reviewed research journal =
articles.=20

(Note that along with free online access, the following also =
automatically comes with the territory:=20
(2) clicking,=20
(3) on-screen access,=20
(4) linking,=20
(5) downloading,=20
(6) local storage,=20
(7) local print-off of hard copy, and=20
(8) local data-mining by the user,=20
as well as global harvesting and search by engines like google.)

Mike Carroll is speaking about Libre OA, which means immediate, =
permanent online access, free for all on the Web=20
(i.e., Gratis OA) plus certain further re-use, re-publication and re-mix =
rights.

(Note that many peer-reviewed journal article authors may not want to =
allow others to make and publish re-mixes of their verbatim texts. =
Journal article texts are not like music, videos, software or even =
research data, out of which creative modifications and remixes can be =
valuable. All scholars and scientists desire that their findings and =
ideas should be accessed, re-used, applied and built-upon, but not =
necessarily that their words should be re-mixed or even re-published -- =
just accessible free for all online, immediately and permanently.)

Today, the only peer-reviewed research journal articles to which =
researchers have access are those to which their institutions can afford =
subscription/licensed access. That means research is losing the uptake =
and impact of all those potential users who are denied access to it.

All researchers want free online access to all research they may need to =
consult or use, not just the research to which their institutions can =
afford subscription access.=20

All researchers want their research to be accessible to all researchers =
who may need to consult or use it, not just to those whose institutions =
can afford subscription access.

It is not at all it clear, however, that researchers want and need the =
right to make and publish re-mixes of other researchers' verbatim texts.

Nor is it clear that all or most researchers want to allow others to =
make and publish re-mixes of their verbatim texts.=20

Hence Gratis OA clearly fulfills an important, universal and =
longstanding universal need of research and researchers.

But it is not at all clear that this is true of Libre OA -- at least not =
for the very special case of the peer-reviewed research journal article =
texts that are the primary, specific target content of the OA movement.

Hence it is not at all clear that there is anything T&F need to correct.

> A fully open access journal
> is one that publishes on the web without delay *and* which gives =
readers
> the full set of reuse rights conditioned only on the requirement that
> users provide proper attribution.
> =
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.100
> 1210

I believe that is not the definition of a fully OA journal but of a =
Libre OA journal.

> T&F's "Open" program and "Open Select" offer 
pseudo open access.

Gratis OA is not pseudo open access. It is the difference between night =
and day for researchers who are denied access to the publisher's version =
of record because their institutions cannot afford access.

And night is the current state of affairs for 80% of research, and has =
been for the past 20 years, even though the means to provide Gratis OA =
(fully) have been available for at least that long.

Gratis OA can be provided in two different ways:=20

Gold OA journals like the T&F journals offer Gratis Gold OA, for which =
the author -- meaning the author's institution or funder --  must pay a =
publication fee. But most journals are not Gold OA journals, and hence =
the potential funds to pay for Gold OA are still locked up in =
institutional subscriptions to non-OA journals.

That means that not only can most research not be made OA by publishing =
it in Gold OA journals (since most journals are non-OA), but even for =
the Gold OA journals, the money to pay the publication fees (of =
those,like T&F, that charge a publication fee) is tied up in paying for =
non-OA subscription journals).

(This is equally true irrespective of whether the Gold OA journals offer =
Gratis OA or Libre OA.)

The second way to provide Gratis OA is through Green OA self-archiving =
(i.e., depositing the author's peer-reviewed final draft in the author's =
Institutional OA Repository immediately upon acceptance for =
publication).

Unlike Gold OA, Green OA does not require paying a publication fee. And =
Green OA can be provided for all articles, not just articles published =
in Gold OA journals.

And, most important, Green OA self-archiving can be mandated by =
researchers' institutions and funders, whereas publishing in Gold OA =
journals cannot be mandated. (Publishers cannot be compelled to convert =
to Gold OA; reserchers cannot be told which journal to publish in; and =
the money to pay for Gold OA is locked into journal subscriptions, which =
cannot be cancelled until and unless the contents of those subscription =
journals are otherwise accessible.)

Most Green OA (and Green OA mandates) are Gratis Green OA -- free online =
access.

But that is still the difference between night and day for researchers.

And Gratis Green OA self-archiving (but not Libre Green OA =
self-archiving) is already endorsed by over 60% of journals -- including =
the top journals in most fields.

So please let us not belittle Gratis OA as not "fully" OA (and 
certainly =
not before we have it!). Let us provide it, and mandate providing it.

And let us not keep focusing on Gold OA: The fastest, surest and =
cheapest way to full OA is for institutions and funders to mandate =
Gratis Green OA self-archiving.

(And, as a bonus, that's also the fastest, surest and cheapest way to =
Gold OA as well as Libre OA, thereafter.)

Harnad, S. (2007) The Green Road to Open Access: A Leveraged Transition. =
In: The Culture of Periodicals from the Perspective of the Electronic =
Age, pp. 99-105, L'Harmattan.
ABSTRACT: What the research community needs, urgently, is free online =
access (Open Access, OA) to its own peer-reviewed research output. =
Researchers can provide OA in two ways: by publishing their articles in =
OA journals (Gold OA) or by continuing to publish in non-OA journals and =
self-archiving their final peer-reviewed drafts in their own OA =
Institutional Repositories (Green OA). OA self-archiving, once it is =
mandated by research institutions and funders, can reliably generate =
100% Green OA. Gold OA requires journals to convert to OA publishing =
(which is not in the hands of the research community) and also requires =
the funds to cover the Gold OA publication costs. With 100% Green OA, =
the research community's access and impact problems are already solved. =
If and when 100% Green OA causes significant cancellation pressure (no =
one knows whether or when that will happen, because OA Green grows =
anarchically, article by article, not journal by journal) then the =
cancellation pressure will cause cost-cutting, downsizing and eventually =
a leveraged transition to OA (Gold) publishing on the part of journals. =
As subscription revenues shrink, institutional windfall savings from =
cancellations grow. If and when journal subscriptions become =
unsustainable, per-article publishing costs will be low enough, and =
institutional savings will be high enough to cover them, because =
publishing will have downsized to just peer-review service provision =
alone, offloading text-generation onto authors and access-provision and =
archiving onto the global network of OA Institutional Repositories. =
Green OA will have leveraged a transition to Gold OA.

Harnad, S. (2010) The Immediate Practical Implication of the Houghton =
Report: Provide Green Open Access Now. Prometheus, 28 (1). pp. 55-59.
ABSTRACT: Among the many important implications of Houghton et al=92s =
(2009) timely and illuminating JISC analysis of the costs and benefits =
of providing free online access (=93Open Access,=94 OA) to peer-reviewed =
scholarly and scientific journal articles one stands out as particularly =
compelling: It would yield a forty-fold benefit/cost ratio if the =
world=92s peer-reviewed research were all self-archived by its authors =
so as to make it OA. There are many assumptions and estimates underlying =
Houghton et al=92s modelling, but they are for the most part very =
reasonable and even conservative. This makes their strongest practical =
implication particularly striking: The 40-fold benefit/cost ratio of =
providing Green OA is an order of magnitude greater than all the other =
potential combinations of alternatives to the status quo analyzed and =
compared by Houghton et al. This outcome is all the more significant in =
light of the fact that self-archiving already rests entirely in the =
hands of the research community (researchers, their institutions and =
their funders), whereas OA publishing depends on the publishing =
community. This outcome emerged from studies that approached the problem =
primarily from the standpoint of the economics of publication rather =
than the economics of research.

Harnad, S. (2010) No-Fault Peer Review Charges: The Price of Selectivity =
Need Not Be Access Denied or Delayed. D-Lib Magazine, 16 (7/8).
ABSTRACT: Plans by universities and research funders to pay the costs of =
Open Access Publishing ("Gold OA") are premature. Funds are short; 
80% =
of journals are still subscription-based, tying up the funds to pay for =
Gold OA; the asking price for Gold OA is still high; there is concern =
that paying to publish may inflate acceptance rates and lower quality =
standards. Universities and funders need to mandate OA self-archiving =
("Green OA"). That provides immediate OA; if and when universal Green 
OA =
makes subscriptions unsustainable (because users are satisfied with just =
Green OA versions) that will induce journals to cut costs (print =
edition, online edition, access-provision, archiving), downsize to just =
providing the service of peer review, and convert to the Gold OA =
cost-recovery model; meanwhile, subscription cancellations will =
releasethe funds to pay these residual service costs. The natural way to =
charge for the service of peer review then will be on a "no-fault =
basis," with the author's institution or funder paying for each round of =
refereeing, regardless of outcome (acceptance, revision/re-refereeing, =
or rejection). This will minimize cost while protecting against inflated =
acceptance rates and decline in quality standards.

> Could you please explain why T&F needs to reserve substantial reuse
> rights after the author or her funder has paid for the costs of
> publication?

This question is valid -- but it is beside the point for the first and =
most important objective of the OA movement (still not reached in over a =
decade of trying), namely, immediate, permanent online access, free for =
all on the Web (i.e., Gratis OA).

T&F's Gratis Gold OA would provide that; but even if T&F provided Libre 
=
Gold OA, that would not be the fastest, surest or cheapest way to reach =
full OA -- by which I mean free online access to all 2.5 million =
articles published annually in the planet's 25,000 peer-reviewed =
journals. See the growth curves in Richard Poynder's "Open Access By =
Numbers": =
http://poynder.blogspot.com/2011/06/open-access-by-numbers.html

Free online access is what research and researchers need most. Mandating =
Gratis Green OA self-archiving will provide just that -- and Gold OA, =
and as much Libre OA as researchers actually need and want -- will be =
not far behind.

But not if we keep over-reaching for Libre OA or Gold OA instead of =
providing and mandating Gratis Green OA.

> If your response is that the article processing charge does not
> represent the full cost of publication, what charge would?  Why aren't
> authors given the option to purchase full open access?

Even the money to pay for Gratis Gold OA is still tied up in =
subscriptions, while subscriptions are still being paid for (and thereby =
paying for publication costs in full).=20

And mandating Gratis Green OA can provide free access at no extra cost, =
while subscriptions are still being paid for (and thereby paying for =
publication costs in full).

So why think about paying even more for Libre Gold OA today, when it's =
not at all clear that researchers want or need it -- whereas it's =
certain that they want and need Gratis OA (and they don't yet have it)?

Stevan Harnad
>=20
> Thanks,
> Mike
>=20
> Michael W. Carroll
> Professor of Law and Director,=20
> Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property
> American University, Washington College of Law
> 4801 Massachusetts Ave., N.W.
> Washington, D.C. 20016
> (202) 274-4047 (voice)
> (202) 730-4756 (fax)
> vcard: http://www.wcl.american.edu/faculty/mcarroll/vcard.vcf
>=20
> Research papers: http://works.bepress.com/michael_carroll/
> http://ssrn.com/author=3D330326
> blog: http://www.carrollogos.org/
> See also www.creativecommons.org
>=20
>=20
> -----Original Message-----
> From: goal-bounces AT eprints.org [mailto:goal-bounces AT eprints.org] On
> Behalf Of McMillan, Jennifer=20
> Sent: Friday, December 16, 2011 5:46 AM
> Subject: [GOAL] Taylor & Francis Opens Access with new OA Program!
>=20
> Taylor & Francis Opens Access with new OA Program!
>=20
> Oxford, 16th December 2011
>=20
> The New Year sees the launch of an exciting range of Open Access =
options
> from Taylor & Francis via the Taylor & Francis Open program. This 
new
> initiative is designed to give authors and their sponsors flexibility
> and variety when they choose to publish research with Taylor & =
Francis.=20
>=20
> The Taylor & Francis Open program is a suite of fully Open Access
> journals consisting of brand new titles, dynamic titles from T&F's
> existing portfolio which are converting to OA, and titles published on
> behalf of the Royal Society of New Zealand and the Human Sciences
> Research Council, South Africa.  Many of the titles in this program =
will
> collaborate with leading journals within T&F's existing portfolio,
> providing input and support from learned societies and
> internationally-acclaimed editors to ensure their calibre.
>=20
> Taylor & Francis Open journals will have affordable article =
publication
> fees, with discounts or fee waivers for emergent countries. Authors =
will
> benefit from rapid online publication, rigorous peer review and the =
high
> levels of customer care Taylor & Francis provides to all authors.  =
Their
> finished article will be showcased on Taylor & Francis Online, helping
> them to gain recognition and esteem for their contribution to their
> field.=20
>=20
> Taylor & Francis can confirm the following titles will be included in
> Taylor & Francis Open, with more to join in the New Year:
> Complex Metals
> Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews
> International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials
> Journal of Biological Dynamics
> Journal of Organic Semiconductors=09
> Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online - published on
> behalf of the Royal Society of New Zealand
> Nanoscience Methods=09
> SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS - published on behalf =
of
> the Human Sciences Research Council
> Systems Science & Control Engineering=09
>=20
> Dr David Green, Global Journals Publishing Director, sums up Taylor &
> Francis' new approaches to Open Access, "Taylor & Francis is 
committed
> to producing high-calibre journals that showcase quality global
> research. We believe that this content should be widely disseminated =
and
> are now exploring various Open Access models to enable universal =
access
> in ways that are sustainable and meet the needs of the academic and
> research communities.  Over the past three years society journals have
> been partnering with Taylor & Francis Group at the rate of more than =
one
> per week, and, if required, we are now able to offer a potential =
partner
> a range of Open Access models".
>=20
> Taylor & Francis will also continue to offer Taylor & Francis Open
> Select, which is a hybrid program giving authors the choice to publish
> on an Open Access basis in over 500 titles from across Taylor & =
Francis
> Group's extensive portfolio.
>=20
> *******************************
> About Taylor & Francis Group
>=20
> Taylor & Francis Group partners with researchers, scholarly societies,
> universities and libraries worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As =
one
> of the world's leading publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks
> and reference works our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social
> Sciences, Science and Technology.
>=20
>> =46rom our network of offices in Oxford, Philadelphia, Melbourne,
> Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, Stockholm, New Delhi and Johannesburg, =
Taylor
> & Francis staff provide local expertise and support to our editors,
> societies and authors  and tailored, efficient customer service to our
> library colleagues.=20
>=20
> For more information please contact:
>=20
> Jennifer McMillan, Head of Library Marketing & Communication, Taylor 
&
> Francis Group Journals
>=20
> email: newsroom AT tandf.co.uk
>=20
> =
------------------------------------------------------------------------
> --------------------------------------------------------------------
>=20
>=20
>=20
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If
> you are not the intended recipient, any use, interference with,
> disclosure or copying of this material is unauthorised and prohibited.
> Although this message and any attachments are believed to be free of
> viruses, no responsibility is accepted by Informa for any loss or =
damage
> arising in any way from receipt or use thereof.  Messages to and from
> the company are monitored for operational reasons and in accordance =
with
> lawful business practices.=20
> If you have received this message in error, please notify us by return
> and delete the message and any attachments.  Further enquiries/returns
> can be sent to postmaster AT informa.com
>=20
> Taylor & Francis Group is a trading name of Informa UK Limited,
> registered in England under no. 1072954
>=20
>=20
>=20
>=20
> _______________________________________________
> GOAL mailing list
> GOAL AT eprints.org
> http://mailman.ecs.soton.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/goal
>=20
> _______________________________________________
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> http://mailman.ecs.soton.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/goal


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<html><head></head><body style=3D"word-wrap: 
break-word; =
-webkit-nbsp-mode: space; -webkit-line-break: after-white-space; 
"><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">The following =
commentary on Mike Carroll's posting on Taylor &amp; Francis's press =
release is intended neither as an endorsement nor as a critique of =
T&amp;F's (or any publisher's) gold OA offerings. It is just an attempt =
to clarify an important point about about OA needs from the standpoint =
of researchers, who are both the providers and the primary intended =
users of peer-reviewed research articles:</font><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font><div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">On 2011-12-16, at 9:42 AM, 
Michael Carroll =
wrote:</font></div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span" 
face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br 
class=3D"Apple-interchange-newline"></font><blockquote =
type=3D"cite"><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5">[The T&amp;F] &nbsp;press release 
is&nbsp;misleading and =
should be corrected. 
&nbsp;</font></div></blockquote><blockquote =
type=3D"cite"><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5">You say that T&amp;F is now 
publishing&nbsp;" fully Open =
Access 
journals",</font></div></blockquote><blockquote =
type=3D"cite"><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5">but unless I've misread the 
licensing&nbsp;arrangements this =
simply is not the case. 
&nbsp;</font></div></blockquote><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">As far as I know, there is no 
such thing as =
"fully OA."&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">There is <i>Gratis =
OA</i> and there is <i>Libre 
OA</i>:&nbsp;</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><a =
href=3D"http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/08/greengold-oa-and-gratis=
libre-oa.html">http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/2008/08/greengold-oa-and=
-gratislibre-oa.html</a></font></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">T&amp;F are selling 
<b>Gratis OA</b>. That =
means (1)&nbsp;<i>immediate, permanent online access, free for all on 
=
the Web --&nbsp;</i>to peer reviewed research journal =
articles.&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(Note that along =
with free online access, the following also automatically comes with
the territory:&nbsp;</font></div></div><blockquote =
class=3D"webkit-indent-blockquote" style=3D"margin: 0 0 0 40px; 
border: =
none; padding: 0px;"><div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">(2) =
clicking,&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(3) on-screen =
access,&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span"=
 face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">(4) =
linking,&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(5) =
downloading,&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(6) local
storage,&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(7)&nbsp;local =
print-off of hard copy, 
and&nbsp;</font></div></div><div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(8) local =
data-mining by the 
user,&nbsp;</font></div></div></blockquote><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">as
well as&nbsp;global harvesting and search by engines like =
google.)</font><div>






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<!--StartFragment-->

<!--EndFragment--><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Mike Carroll is speaking about 
<b>Libre =
OA</b>, which means immediate, permanent online access, free for all on =
the Web&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">(i.e., Gratis OA) 
<b>plus</b> certain further =
re-use, re-publication and re-mix 
rights.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">(Note that many peer-reviewed 
journal article =
authors may not want to allow others to make and publish re-mixes of =
their verbatim texts. Journal article texts are not like music, videos, =
software or even research data, out of which creative modifications and =
remixes can be valuable. All scholars and scientists desire that =
their&nbsp;<i>findings and ideas</i> should be accessed, 
re-used, =
applied and built-upon, but&nbsp;<i>not necessarily that their words 
=
should be re-mixed or even re-published -- </i>just accessible free for =
all online, immediately and 
permanently.)</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Today, the only peer-reviewed 
research journal =
articles to which researchers have access are those to which their =
institutions can afford subscription/licensed access. That means =
research is losing the uptake and impact of all those potential users =
who are denied access to it.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">All researchers want free 
online access to all =
research they may need to consult or use, not just the research to which =
their institutions can afford subscription =
access.&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">All researchers =
want their research to be accessible to all researchers who may need to =
consult or use it, not just to those whose institutions can afford =
subscription access.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">It is not at all it =
clear, however, that researchers want and need the right to make and =
publish re-mixes of other researchers' verbatim =
texts.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Nor is it clear that all or 
most researchers =
want to allow&nbsp;others to make and publish re-mixes of their verbatim =
texts.&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Hence Gratis OA =
clearly fulfills an important, universal and longstanding =
universal&nbsp;</font><span class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
style=3D"font-family: Arial; font-size: x-large; 
">need</span><span =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" style=3D"font-family: Arial; 
font-size: =
x-large; ">&nbsp;</span><span 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
style=3D"font-family: Arial; font-size: x-large; ">of research and 
=
researchers.</span></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">But it is not at =
all clear that this is true of Libre OA -- at least not for the very =
special case of the peer-reviewed research journal article texts that =
are the primary, specific target content of the OA =
movement.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial"=
 size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Hence it is not at all clear 
that there is =
anything T&amp;F need to 
correct.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><blockquote type=3D"cite"><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">A fully open access =
journal<br>is one that publishes on the web without delay *and* which =
gives readers<br>the full set of reuse rights conditioned only on the =
requirement that<br>users provide proper attribution.<br><a =
href=3D"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pb=
io.100">http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pb=
io.100</a><br>1210<br></font></div></blockquote><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">I believe that is not the 
definition of a =
fully OA journal but of a <i>Libre</i> OA =
journal.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><blockquote type=3D"cite"><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">T&amp;F's "Open" =
program and "Open Select" offer pseudo open =
access.<br></font></div></blockquote><div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span"=
 face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Gratis OA is not =
pseudo open access. It is the difference between night and day for =
researchers who are denied access to the publisher's version of record =
because their institutions cannot afford 
access.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">And night is the current state 
of affairs for =
80% of research, and has been for the past 20 years, even though the =
means to provide Gratis OA (fully) have been available for at least that =
long.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Gratis OA can be provided in 
two different =
ways:&nbsp;</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Gold OA journals =
like the T&amp;F journals offer Gratis Gold OA, for which the author -- =
meaning the author's institution or funder -- &nbsp;must pay a =
publication fee. But most journals are not Gold OA journals, and hence =
the potential funds to pay for Gold OA are still locked up in =
institutional subscriptions to non-OA 
journals.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">That means that not only can 
most research not =
be made OA by publishing it in Gold OA journals (since most journals are =
non-OA), but even for the Gold OA journals, the money to pay the =
publication fees (of those,like T&amp;F, that charge a publication fee) =
is tied up in paying for non-OA subscription =
journals).</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(This is equally =
true irrespective of whether the Gold OA journals offer Gratis OA or =
Libre OA.)</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">The second way to =
provide Gratis OA is through Green OA self-archiving (i.e., depositing =
the author's peer-reviewed final draft in the author's Institutional OA =
Repository immediately upon acceptance for =
publication).</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Unlike Gold OA, =
Green OA does not require paying a publication fee. And Green OA can be =
provided for all articles, not just articles published in Gold OA =
journals.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial"=
 size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">And, most important, Green OA 
self-archiving =
can be mandated by researchers' institutions and funders, whereas =
publishing in Gold OA journals cannot be mandated. (Publishers cannot be =
compelled to convert to Gold OA; reserchers cannot be told which journal =
to publish in; and the money to pay for Gold OA is locked into journal =
subscriptions, which cannot be cancelled until and unless the contents =
of those subscription journals are otherwise =
accessible.)</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Most Green OA (and =
Green OA mandates) are Gratis Green OA -- free online =
access.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">But that is still the 
difference between night =
and day for researchers.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span"=
 face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">And Gratis Green OA =
self-archiving (but not Libre Green OA self-archiving) is already =
endorsed by over 60% of journals -- including the top journals in most =
fields.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">So please let us not belittle 
Gratis OA as not =
"fully" OA (and certainly not before we have it!). Let us provide it, 
=
and mandate providing it.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">And let us not keep focusing 
on Gold OA: The =
fastest, surest and cheapest way to full OA is for institutions and =
funders to mandate Gratis Green OA =
self-archiving.</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">(And, as a bonus, =
that's also the fastest, surest and cheapest way to Gold OA as well as =
Libre OA, thereafter.)</font></div></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><blockquote 
class=3D"webkit-indent-blockquote"=
 style=3D"margin: 0 0 0 40px; border: none; padding: 
0px;"><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><div =
style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; =
margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal 12px/normal Helvetica; =
"><div style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; 
margin-bottom: 0px; =
margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal 18px/normal Arial; =
">Harnad, S. (2007)&nbsp;<a =
href=3D"http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/15753/">The Green Road to 
Open =
Access: A Leveraged Transition</a>. In:&nbsp;<i>The Culture of 
=
Periodicals from the Perspective of the Electronic Age</i>, pp. 99-105, =
L'Harmattan.</div><div style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 
0px; =
margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal =
18px/normal Arial; "><b>ABSTRACT:</b>&nbsp;What the 
research community =
needs, urgently, is free online access (Open Access, OA) to its own =
peer-reviewed research output. Researchers can provide OA in two ways: =
by publishing their articles in OA journals (Gold OA) or by continuing =
to publish in non-OA journals and self-archiving their final =
peer-reviewed drafts in their own OA Institutional Repositories (Green =
OA). OA self-archiving, once it is mandated by research institutions and =
funders, can reliably generate 100% Green OA. Gold OA requires journals =
to convert to OA publishing (which is not in the hands of the research =
community) and also requires the funds to cover the Gold OA publication =
costs. With 100% Green OA, the research community's access and impact =
problems are already solved. If and when 100% Green OA causes =
significant cancellation pressure (no one knows whether or when that =
will happen, because OA Green grows anarchically, article by article, =
not journal by journal) then the cancellation pressure will cause =
cost-cutting, downsizing and eventually a leveraged transition to OA =
(Gold) publishing on the part of journals. As subscription revenues =
shrink, institutional windfall savings from cancellations grow. If and =
when journal subscriptions become unsustainable, per-article publishing =
costs will be low enough, and institutional savings will be high enough =
to cover them, because publishing will have downsized to just =
peer-review service provision alone, offloading text-generation onto =
authors and access-provision and archiving onto the global network of OA =
Institutional Repositories. Green OA will have leveraged a transition to =
Gold OA.</div><div style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; =
margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal =
18px/normal Arial; "><span style=3D"font: 18.0px 'Lucida 
Grande'"><br>
</span>Harnad, S. (2010)&nbsp;<a =
href=3D"http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18514/">The Immediate 
Practical =
Implication of the Houghton Report: Provide Green Open Access =
Now</a>.&nbsp;<i>Prometheus</i>, 28 (1). pp. 
55-59.</div><div =
style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; =
margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal 18px/normal Arial; =
"><b>ABSTRACT:</b>&nbsp;Among the many important 
implications of =
Houghton et al=92s (2009) timely and illuminating JISC analysis of the =
costs and benefits of providing free online access (=93Open Access,=94 =
OA) to peer-reviewed scholarly and scientific journal articles one =
stands out as particularly compelling: It would yield a forty-fold =
benefit/cost ratio if the world=92s peer-reviewed research were all =
self-archived by its authors so as to make it OA. There are many =
assumptions and estimates underlying Houghton et al=92s modelling, but =
they are for the most part very reasonable and even conservative. This =
makes their strongest practical implication particularly striking: The =
40-fold benefit/cost ratio of providing Green OA is an order of =
magnitude greater than all the other potential combinations of =
alternatives to the status quo analyzed and compared by Houghton et al. =
This outcome is all the more significant in light of the fact that =
self-archiving already rests entirely in the hands of the research =
community (researchers, their institutions and their funders), whereas =
OA publishing depends on the publishing community. This outcome emerged =
from studies that approached the problem primarily from the standpoint =
of the economics of publication rather than the economics of =
research.</div><div style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; 
=
margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal =
18px/normal Arial; min-height: 21px; "><br></div><div 
style=3D"margin-top:=
 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; font: =
normal normal normal 18px/normal Arial; ">Harnad, S. 
(2010)&nbsp;<a =
href=3D"http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july10/harnad/07harnad.html">No-Fault =
Peer Review Charges: The Price of Selectivity Need Not Be Access Denied =
or Delayed</a>.&nbsp;<i>D-Lib Magazine</i>, 16 
(7/8).</div><div =
style=3D"margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; =
margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal 18px/normal Arial; =
"><b>ABSTRACT:</b> Plans by universities and research 
funders to pay the =
costs of Open Access Publishing ("Gold OA") are premature. Funds are 
=
short; 80% of journals are still subscription-based, tying up the funds =
to pay for Gold OA; the asking price for Gold OA is still high; there is =
concern that paying to publish may inflate acceptance rates and lower =
quality standards. Universities and funders need to mandate OA =
self-archiving ("Green OA"). That provides immediate OA; if and when 
=
universal Green OA makes subscriptions unsustainable (because users are =
satisfied with just Green OA versions) that will induce journals to cut =
costs (print edition, online edition, access-provision, archiving), =
downsize to just providing the service of peer review, and convert to =
the Gold OA cost-recovery model; meanwhile, subscription cancellations =
will releasethe funds to pay these residual service costs. The natural =
way to charge for the service of peer review then will be on a "no-fault =
basis," with the author's institution or funder paying for each round of =
refereeing, regardless of outcome (acceptance, revision/re-refereeing, =
or rejection). This will minimize cost while protecting against inflated =
acceptance rates and decline in quality =
standards.</div><div><br></div></div></font></div></blockquote><div><div><=
blockquote type=3D"cite"><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Could you please explain why 
T&amp;F needs to =
reserve substantial reuse<br>rights after the author or her funder has =
paid for the costs =
of<br>publication?<br></font></div></blockquote><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">This question is valid -- but 
it is beside the =
point for the first and most important objective of the OA movement =
(still not reached in over a decade of trying), =
namely,&nbsp;<i>immediate, permanent online access, free for all on 
the =
Web </i>(i.e., Gratis OA).</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">T&amp;F's Gratis Gold OA 
would provide that; =
but even if T&amp;F provided Libre Gold OA, that would not be =
the&nbsp;fastest, surest or cheapest way to reach full OA -- by which I =
mean free online access to all 2.5 million articles published annually =
in the planet's 25,000 peer-reviewed journals. See the growth curves in =
Richard Poynder's "Open Access By Numbers":&nbsp;<a =
href=3D"http://poynder.blogspot.com/2011/06/open-access-by-numbers.html">h=
ttp://poynder.blogspot.com/2011/06/open-access-by-numbers.html</a></font><=
/div><div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span" 
face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Free online access is what 
research and =
researchers need most. Mandating Gratis Green OA self-archiving will =
provide just that -- and Gold OA, and as much Libre OA as researchers =
actually need and want -- will be not far 
behind.</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">But not if we keep 
over-reaching for Libre OA =
or Gold OA instead of providing and mandating Gratis Green =
OA.</font></div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span" 
face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font><blockquote 
type=3D"cite"><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">If your response is =
that the article processing charge does not<br>represent the full cost =
of publication, what charge would? &nbsp;Why aren't<br>authors given 
the =
option to purchase full open =
access?<br></font></div></blockquote><div><font class=3D"Apple-style-span"=
 face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Even the money to =
pay for Gratis Gold OA is still tied up in subscriptions, while =
subscriptions are still being paid for (and thereby paying for =
publication costs in 
full).&nbsp;</font></div><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">And mandating Gratis Green OA 
can provide free =
access at no extra cost,&nbsp;while subscriptions are still being paid =
for&nbsp;(and thereby paying for publication costs in =
full).</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">So why think about paying even 
more for Libre =
Gold OA today, when it's not at all clear that researchers want or need =
it -- whereas it's certain that they want and need Gratis OA (and they =
don't yet have it)?</font></div><div><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5"><br></font></div><div><font 
=
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">Stevan =
Harnad</font></div><div><blockquote 
type=3D"cite"><div><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" =
size=3D"5"><br>Thanks,<br>Mike<br><br>Michael W. Carroll<br>Professor of =
Law and Director, <br>Program on Information Justice and Intellectual =
Property<br>American University, Washington College of Law<br>4801 
=
Massachusetts Ave., N.W.<br>Washington, D.C. 20016<br>(202) 
274-4047 =
(voice)<br>(202) 730-4756 (fax)<br>vcard: <a =
href=3D"http://www.wcl.american.edu/faculty/mcarroll/vcard.vcf">http://www=
.wcl.american.edu/faculty/mcarroll/vcard.vcf</a><br><br>Research papers: =
<a =
href=3D"http://works.bepress.com/michael_carroll/">http://works.bepress.co=
m/michael_carroll/</a><br><a =
href=3D"http://ssrn.com/author=3D330326">http://ssrn.com/author=3D330326</=
a><br>blog: http://www.carrollogos.org/<br>See also =
www.creativecommons.org<br><br><br>-----Original 
Message-----<br>From: =
goal-bounces AT eprints.org [mailto:goal-bounces AT eprints.org] 
On<br>Behalf =
Of McMillan, Jennifer <br>Sent: Friday, December 16, 2011 5:46 =
AM<br>Subject: [GOAL] Taylor &amp; Francis Opens Access with new OA =
Program!<br><br>Taylor &amp; Francis Opens Access with new OA =
Program!<br><br>Oxford, 16th December 2011<br><br>The 
New Year sees the =
launch of an exciting range of Open Access options<br>from Taylor 
&amp; =
Francis via the Taylor &amp; Francis Open program. This =
new<br>initiative is designed to give authors and their sponsors =
flexibility<br>and variety when they choose to publish research with =
Taylor &amp; Francis. <br><br>The Taylor &amp; Francis Open 
program is a =
suite of fully Open Access<br>journals consisting of brand new titles, =
dynamic titles from T&amp;F's<br>existing portfolio which are 
converting =
to OA, and titles published on<br>behalf of the Royal Society of New =
Zealand and the Human Sciences<br>Research Council, South Africa. =
&nbsp;Many of the titles in this program will<br>collaborate with =
leading journals within T&amp;F's existing portfolio,<br>providing 
input =
and support from learned societies and<br>internationally-acclaimed =
editors to ensure their calibre.<br><br>Taylor &amp; Francis 
Open =
journals will have affordable article publication<br>fees, with =
discounts or fee waivers for emergent countries. Authors will<br>benefit 
=
from rapid online publication, rigorous peer review and the =
high<br>levels of customer care Taylor &amp; Francis provides to all 
=
authors. &nbsp;Their<br>finished article will be showcased on Taylor 
=
&amp; Francis Online, helping<br>them to gain recognition and esteem 
for =
their contribution to their<br>field. <br><br>Taylor 
&amp; Francis can =
confirm the following titles will be included in<br>Taylor &amp; 
Francis =
Open, with more to join in the New Year:<br>Complex Metals<br>Green 
=
Chemistry Letters and Reviews<br>International Journal of Smart and Nano 
=
Materials<br>Journal of Biological Dynamics<br>Journal of Organic =
Semiconductors<span class=3D"Apple-tab-span" 
style=3D"white-space:pre">	=
</span><br>Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online 
- =
published on<br>behalf of the Royal Society of New =
Zealand<br>Nanoscience Methods<span class=3D"Apple-tab-span" 
=
style=3D"white-space:pre">	</span><br>SAHARA-J: 
Journal of Social =
Aspects of HIV/AIDS - published on behalf of<br>the Human Sciences =
Research Council<br>Systems Science &amp; Control Engineering<span 
=
class=3D"Apple-tab-span" style=3D"white-space:pre">	=
</span><br><br>Dr David Green, Global Journals Publishing 
Director, sums =
up Taylor &amp;<br>Francis' new approaches to Open Access, 
"Taylor &amp; =
Francis is committed<br>to producing high-calibre journals that showcase 
=
quality global<br>research. We believe that this content should be =
widely disseminated and<br>are now exploring various Open Access models =
to enable universal access<br>in ways that are sustainable and meet the =
needs of the academic and<br>research communities. &nbsp;Over the 
past =
three years society journals have<br>been partnering with Taylor 
&amp; =
Francis Group at the rate of more than one<br>per week, and, if =
required, we are now able to offer a potential partner<br>a range of =
Open Access models".<br><br>Taylor &amp; Francis will also 
continue to =
offer Taylor &amp; Francis Open<br>Select, which is a hybrid program 
=
giving authors the choice to publish<br>on an Open Access basis in over =
500 titles from across Taylor &amp; Francis<br>Group's extensive =
portfolio.<br><br>*******************************<br>About 
Taylor &amp; =
Francis Group<br><br>Taylor &amp; Francis Group partners with =
researchers, scholarly societies,<br>universities and libraries =
worldwide to bring knowledge to life. As one<br>of the world's leading =
publishers of scholarly journals, books, ebooks<br>and reference works =
our content spans all areas of Humanities, Social<br>Sciences, Science =
and Technology.<br><br></font><blockquote 
type=3D"cite"><font =
class=3D"Apple-style-span" face=3D"Arial" 
size=3D"5">=46rom our network =
of offices in Oxford, Philadelphia, =
Melbourne,<br></font></blockquote><font 
class=3D"Apple-style-span" =
face=3D"Arial" size=3D"5">Singapore, Beijing, Tokyo, 
Stockholm, New =
Delhi and Johannesburg, Taylor<br>&amp; Francis staff provide local =
expertise and support to our editors,<br>societies and authors 
&nbsp;and =
tailored, efficient customer service to our<br>library colleagues. =
<br><br>For more information please 
contact:<br><br>Jennifer McMillan, =
Head of Library Marketing &amp; Communication, Taylor 
&amp;<br>Francis =
Group Journals<br><br>email: <a =
href=3D"mailto:newsroom AT tandf.co.uk">newsroom AT 
tandf.co.uk</a><br><br>-----=
-------------------------------------------------------------------<br>---=
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confidential. If<br>you are not the intended recipient, any use, =
interference with,<br>disclosure or copying of this material is =
unauthorised and prohibited.<br>Although this message and any =
attachments are believed to be free of<br>viruses, no responsibility is =
accepted by Informa for any loss or damage<br>arising in any way from =
receipt or use thereof. &nbsp;Messages to and from<br>the company are 
=
monitored for operational reasons and in accordance with<br>lawful =
business practices. <br>If you have received this message in error, =
please notify us by return<br>and delete the message and any =
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=
href=3D"mailto:postmaster AT informa.com">postmaster AT 
informa.com</a><br><br>T=
aylor &amp; Francis Group is a trading name of Informa UK =
Limited,<br>registered in England under no. =
1072954<br><br><br><br><br>_______________________________________________=
<br>GOAL mailing list<br><a =
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eprints.org</a><br>http://mailman.ec=
s.soton.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/goal<br><br>_______________________________=
________________<br>GOAL mailing =
list<br>GOAL AT 
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o/goal<br></font></div></blockquote></div><br></div></body></html>=

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