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[BOAI] Re: On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Sat, 13 Sep 2003 04:05:38 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

On Fri, 12 Sep 2003, [Identity Deleted] wrote:

> Stevan,
>
> [Identity Deleted], our electronic resources coordinator, was inspired by
> your quote of 55% of journals allowing self-archiving to ask why we don't
> just go back and retrospectively add that 55% to a University archive.
> [ http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/2995.html ]
>
> I have been pushing [Ivy League University, identity deleted] to establish 

> such an archive.  I thought it was a great idea to get a collection of 
> content immediately.  Do you know of other Universities that are doing 
> this and if not, why not?

Thanks for your message. 

(1) The 55% figure comes from the Romeo sample of 7000+ journals, of
which 55% already officially support author/institution self-archiving.
(Many more journals will agree if asked.)
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm

(2) In most cases the support probably extends to the retrospective legacy
literature as this is not a great source of potential revenue and many
more journals (e.g., Science) already support self-archiving after an
interval -- from 6 months to three years -- after the publication date.

(3) Although making a university's past research output openly
accessible is very valuable and desirable (and doing it is to be
strongly encouraged), making its *current* research output openly
accessible is even more valuable and desirable (and even more strongly
to be encouraged!).

(4) The 55% figure is actually an estimate of the *minimum* amount of
*current* research output that universities can already self-archive
immediately, without the need to make any further request of the
publisher, or any change in the copyright transfer of licensing
agreement. http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/#copyright1

(5) The challenge with self-archiving (whether current or legacy research
output) is not, and has never been, publishers or copyright. Publishers
will cooperate, in the interests of science and scholarship.
http://www.stm-assoc.org/infosharing/springconference-prog.html

(6) The real challenge is establishing a systematic institutional
self-archiving policy that will ensure the speedy self-archiving of
research output. The library can help
http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/#libraries-do 
especially by offering a proxy self-archiving service
e.g. http://eprints.st-andrews.ac.uk/proxy_archive.html
but it is the university and its departments that need to strongly
encourage or even mandate self-archiving by its researchers
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/archpolnew.html
their policy backed up by the research funding agencies
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad/

But going after retrospective research is a good idea too. I hope
universities that have been implementing this will reply and share their
experience.

Stevan Harnad

NOTE: A complete archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open
access to the peer-reviewed research literature online is available at
the American Scientist September Forum (98 & 99 & 00 & 01 & 02 
& 03):

    http://amsci-forum.amsci.org/archives/september98-forum.html
                            or
    http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/index.html

Discussion can be posted to: september98-forum AT amsci-forum.amsci.org 



[BOAI] Seminar: Open Archives and Public Access to Environmental Info, Stockholm, Sep.11.

From: =?iso-8859-1?Q?Hugo_Fjelsted_Alr=F8e?= <Hugo.Alroe AT agrsci.dk>
Date: Wed, 10 Sep 2003 09:15:39 +0200


For your information, there is a seminar on open archives and public access 
tomorrow in Sweden. Public access is one of the less spoken of goals of open 
archives - so if anyone happens to be in the neighbourhood ...
regards, Hugo Alrĝe
 
_____________________________________________________
Open Archives and Public Access to Environmental Info

Place: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Blekholmsterrassen 36, 
Stockholm 
Date: Thursday, September 11, 2003

The seminar concerns the concept of open archives within the field of 
environmental research (and related areas such as agriculture, forestry and 
veterinary medicine ...). One theme in the seminar will be the UNECE Convention 
on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to 
Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) 
<http://www.unece.org/env/pp/treatytext.htm>).

Program:
09.00-09.30 Coffee and registration
09.30-09.35 Welcome
09.35-10.05 Introduction to the Aarhus Convention Jonas Ebbesson, Doctor of
Law and Senior Lecturer of  Environmental Law at the Stockholm University. 
10.05-10.20 Information from The Aarhus Convention Electronic Information
Tools Task Force, Bengt Littorin Swedish EnviroNet 
10.20-10.30 Short break
10.30-11.30 "Open archives within the field of environmental 
research", Hugo
Fjelsted Alrĝe, Postdoctoral Scientist at the Danish Research Centre for
Organic Farming and Administrator of Organic Eprints
11.30-12.30 "Open archives and intellectual property", Mark Bide, 
Rightscom
Ltd
12.30-13.30 Lunch buffet 
13.30-14.30 Group work  - free time for our lecturers...
14.30-14.45 Coffee
14.45-16.00 Panel debate (Mark Bide, Hugo Fjelsted Alrĝe, Jonas Ebbesson)
Jan Hagerlid will conduct the panel debate. Jan works with the Netuniversity
and electronic publishing at Bibsam, the Department for National
Co-ordination and Development at the Royal Library of Sweden.
16.00 Closing

The seminar is a joint venture between the libraries of the Swedish University 
of Agricultural Sciences(SLU) <http://www.bib.slu.se/eng/> and the 
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency < 
http://www.internat.naturvardsverket.se/>. It is partly funded by BIBSAM 
(the Royal Library´s Department for National Co-ordination and Development)< 
http://www.kb.se/ENG/kbstart.htm>.


[BOAI] Berlin Conference on Open Access to Data and Results: 20-22 Oct

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Mon, 8 Sep 2003 02:21:32 +0100 (BST)


Conference on
    Open Access to the Data and Results of the Sciences and Humanities
    20 - 22 Oct 2003, Berlin
http://www.zim.mpg.de/openaccess-berlin/index.html

The 3-day conference aims to bring together key players from national
and international research organizations, learned societies, museums,
archives, libraries and research funding agencies and political
institutions, commercial and non-for profit publishing services
concerned about the future of scientific e-publishing and scholarly
communication. The declared aim of the meeting is to provide guidance to
all players involved on how to help build a future-proof, flexible,
open, and high-quality scholarly and scientific publishing system.

    * Prepare the transformation of all areas of research from the print
into the electronic world.
    * Establish an open-access policy on the Internet for scientific
information, including cultural heritage.
    * Define future models for web-based scientific/scholarly
communication and publishing and for making cultural heritage accessible
on the Web.
    * Provide blueprints on how to make publishing alternatives work in
a sustainable way.
    * Encourage funding agencies and research organizations to support
the creation and implementation of open access models for scientific
publishing.
    * Encourage funding agencies and research organizations to support
the transfer of existing content both from science and culture to the
new medium.
    * Define prerequisites for a future Web of Culture and Science.

Contact

Dr. Stefan Echinger
Head of the Division Strategic Planning
Max Planck Society
echinger AT mpg-gv.mpg.de
Tel: +49 (0) 89 - 21 08 - 14 30 or - 14 31

Theresa Velden
Heinz Nixdorf Center for Information Management
in the Max Planck Society (ZIM)
velden AT zim.mpg.de
Tel: +49 (0) 89 - 32 99 - 15 51




[BOAI] Re: How to compare research impact of toll- vs. open-access research

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Sat, 6 Sep 2003 13:34:14 +0100 (BST)


Threading:      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: How to compare research impact of toll- vs. open-access research from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

The following data posted by Peter Suber in
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/fosblog.html 
indicate that open-access articles (from BioMedCentral) average at least
89 times as many downloads as toll-access articles (from Elsevier). (The
89 is probably an undercount, because it does not include PubMedCentral
downloads.)

    PETER SUBER:
    "Elsevier has put some PowerPoint slides on the web summarizing
    its interim results for 2003. Slide #16 shows that there were 4.5
    million full-text articles in ScienceDirect on June 30, 2003, and
    slide #15 shows that there were 124 million article downloads in
    the 12 months preceding that date. This means that its articles
    were downloaded an average of 28 times each during the past year.
    http://www.investis.com/reedelsevierplc/data/interims2003b.ppt

    "For comparison I asked Jan Velterop of BioMed Central what the
    download figure was for BMC articles during the same time period. He
    reports that the average is about 2500 per year, which doesn't
    count downloads of the same articles from PubMed Central. This is
    89 times the Elsevier number. "

Combine these download data with the citebase data on the correlation
between downloads and citations
    http://citebase.eprints.org/analysis/correlation.php
and you will be able to estimate the dramatic way in which open access
enhances research citation impact, confirming what Steve Lawrence reported
in 2001 for computer science research:
    http://www.nature.com/nature/debates/e-access/Articles/lawrence.html
and what Kurtz et al. reported for astrophysical research:
    http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/2829.html

(In an ongoing collaboration with Charles Oppenheim we are currently
making controlled pairwise comparisons of citation impact between
open-access and toll-access articles that appear in the same journal and
year, comparing self-archived and non-self-archived articles, across time,
and across disciplines. We hope to extend these comparisons with the
help of ISI's citation database.)

Those individuals, institutions, research-funders, tax-payers and nations
who are interested in increasing the visibility, usage and impact of
their research output should take special note of these data! Apply the
estimates in reverse if you wish to estimate the amount of research impact
(and its rewards) being that is currently being *lost* daily, monthly,
and yearly by researchers, their institutions, and by research itself as
long as we delay providing immediate open access to all research output --
as we could already do today, by self-archiving it.
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/che.htm

Stevan Harnad


[BOAI] On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Sat, 6 Sep 2003 00:34:07 +0100 (BST)


Threading:      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

       On the Need to Take Both Roads to Open Access

                    Stevan Harnad

As something of a veteran in the crusade for open access, I feel that I
have to point out to the growing number of open-access advocates that we
have lately been getting a little carried away with open-access publishing
-- as if it were the *only* way to attain open access, rather than
just one of two complementary ways (open-access self-archiving being
the other way).

This one-sided impression (that open-access = open-access publishing)
is all over the public press at the moment, in the US and Europe. This is
a (gentle) irony that historians will eventually have some fun sorting
out: How did it happen that when at long last we finally began to awaken
to the need for open access to research we first went on to risk losing
yet *another* decade waiting passively for open-access publishing to
prevail, when we could in the meanwhile already have had open access too? 

Waiting passively for what? For the 24,000 existing toll-access
journals http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/ to either convert to
open-access of their own accord or to go belly-up in the face of new
open-access competitors (24,000 of them?) that would capture their
authorship. This, at a time when in reality there existed only about
500 open-access journals http://www.doaj.org/  -- which is less than 5% of
the refereed research literature even if we double the estimate.

The crux of the matter is this: 24,000 journals (or even ISI's hard-core
8,000) are unlikely to be induced to convert to open-access on the
strength of a press flurry, petitions, declarations, threats to
boycott, promises of government subsidy for open-access author-costs, US
congressional bills, and songs of praise for open access by the research
community and the media worldwide. For there is one glaring omission in
all of this: It is all based on passivity on the part of the research
community. 

(It is not even clear what percentage of researchers would actually be
willing to switch from publishing in their currently preferred journals
to open-access journals even if 24,000, rather than just 500, open-access
journals already existed for them to switch *to*!)

Why would publishers take the research community's much publicized
yearning for open access seriously as long as that yearning is expressed
only in this passive way, with the expectation that all the effort should
be made on their behalf by journal publishers, for the sake of this open
access that the researchers purport to need and want so much? Who would
not question the depth of the research community's desire for open access
as long as that desire keeps being voiced only vicariously, rather than
through self-help efforts, as if all possibility and responsibility for
action lay exclusively with publishers?

What will make publishers take the research community's expressed
wishes seriously will be *action* on the part of researchers, taking the
powerful self-help step that is actually within their own power to take
right *now*, in the interest of immediate open access: self-archiving
their own published research output. This will be the only credible (and
indeed irresistible) proof of the research community's desire for open
access. Moreover, it is guaranteed to provide immediate open access for
the research of every author who actually does self-archive. 

The only reason the research community is not yet taking this simple
self-help step in sufficient numbers -- they *are* taking it in
increasing numbers, but those numbers are as yet far from sufficient
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/self-archiving.ppt -- is that
the research community does not yet *understand* that this more direct
means of gaining immediate open access for their own research output
(through institutional self-archiving) is already within their reach.

The one-sided emphasis that the research community is currently
placing on the 5% solution (open-access publishing), instead of
also promoting -- at least as vigorously -- the complementary 95%
solution (open-access self-archiving of the remaining 95% of their
refereed-research publications) is now becoming part of the problem
instead of the solution, leaving researchers and their institutions and
funders both inactive and unaware about what they could already be doing
in order to provide open access right now, rather than just waiting
passively and hoping that the 500 figure will somehow climb to 24,000
just on the strength of polemics and wishful thinking alone!

It will take a long time and a lot of effort to spawn or convert
24,000 journals, but their current full-text contents could already be
made openly accessible in to time, if researchers would only take the
action that is already open to them: immediate self-archiving.

The most common brake on researchers' taking this immediate
action is an inchoate worry about copyright. But the proof that
copyright cannot be the real obstacle is already available! Even on
the most conservative construal of the Romeo copyright-policy statistics
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm
at least 55% of the research literature could already be self-archived
(and hence openly accessible) with the journal publisher's formal and official
blessing *today* (indeed, yesterday) -- yet researchers are still not
doing it in anywhere near the numbers that even the most conservative
percentage would allow! 

(The potential percentage is in reality much higher than 55%:
for the rest of the authors publishing in journals that do not
yet officially support self-archiving can simply *ask* their
publishers, on a per-article basis, to agree to their self-archiving;
many more publishers will agree. And that percentage can be raised
to 100% if the remaining authors, in those cases where their
publisher refuses, simply use the preprint-plus-corrigenda strategy
http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/#copyright1 ).

But even as the 55% solution, self-archiving trumps the 5% solution by
an order of magnitude, and instantaneously! If only it were actually
practised. But it is not, yet. And that is what needs to be remedied.
It is not remedied by focusing all attention and effort on the 5%
solution!

In October, Germany will have a national policy meeting (through its
Max-Planck Societies, and in collaboration with the European Cultural
Heritage Organization) on "Open Access to the Data and Results of the
Sciences and Humanities" with a view to formulating and signing the
"Berlin Declaration," which is meant to be a model open-access policy
for Europe as well as the rest of the world. In November there are
Norwegian and UK national meetings on the same theme. The US has the
Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, H.R. 2613) pending. It is so
important that all of these timely efforts give due weight to *both* of
the complementary open-access strategies, rather than just open-access
publishing.

Here is a simple, transparent, unified strategy for an institution,
or a research-funder, or a nation wishing to maximize the access to --
and thereby the impact of -- its research output:

    (1) All research output should be published in open-access journals
    if and when suitable ones exist (5% of research, currently) and

    (2) the other 95% of research output should be published in
    the researcher's journal of choice, but also self-archived in the
    author's institutional open-access archive -- now.

Our research group at Southampton and Loughborough will soon report
data on the current rate of growth of open access via each of these
two complementary strategies, in terms of the annual number of
articles that are openly accessible each way as a percentage of total
published articles per year so far. We will describe how Tim Brody's
citebase http://citebase.eprints.org/ and citation/usage correlator
http://citebase.eprints.org/analysis/correlation.php can be used to
measure the citation and usage impact of open-access articles and
authors, and how Mike Jewell's standardised open-access CV software
http://paracite.eprints.org/cgi-bin/rae_front.cgi can be used to encourage
and assess research output and impact. We will re-present Steve Lawrence's
finding http://www.neci.nec.com/~lawrence/papers/online-nature01/
that in computer science, open-access articles are cited 4.5 times as
often as toll-access articles. (And if our own data from an ongoing
collaboration with Charles Oppenheim are ready, we will report the open-
vs. toll-access impact-advantage for other disciplines, in controlled
pairwise comparisons of open vs toll access in the same journal and year,
for self-archived and non-self-archived articles, and across time.)

The cumulative message will be that the 95% solution (self-archiving),
if implemented now, would increase research visibility, research
impact, and hence research progress and productivity substantially.
We will will even estimate graphically how much research impact US,
UK, and French research -- and research in general -- are losing daily,
monthly and yearly, because of *lack* of open access, and how long it
would take to stanch that daily/monthly/yearly loss if the research
community pursued only the passive 5% solution, rather than also
actively self-archiving immediately!

A proposal for an institutional
http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Temp/archpolnew.html 
and national 
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad/ 
self-archiving policy will also be described, to help focus and put into
context open-access efforts such as the Public Access to Science Act
http://publish.uwo.ca/~strosow/Sabo_Bill_Paper.pdf 
and the Bethesda Statement 
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/bethesda.htm

Stevan Harnad

NOTE: A complete archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open
access to the peer-reviewed research literature online is available at
the American Scientist September Forum (98 & 99 & 00 & 01 & 02 
& 03):

    http://amsci-forum.amsci.org/archives/september98-forum.html
                            or
    http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/index.html

Discussion can be posted to: september98-forum AT amsci-forum.amsci.org 



[BOAI] Re: Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, H.R. 2613)

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Fri, 5 Sep 2003 17:05:24 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] Re: Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, H.R. 2613) from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message

On Fri, 5 Sep 2003, Sally Morris made a very good point:

>         Stevan Harnad wrote:
>sh>     "Most of the existing 24,000 journals would not
>sh>      accept to publish public-domain texts"
> 
> I think this is probably inaccurate. I would guess that practically all of
> those journals do publish works which are currently governed by the Public
> Domain status of US Government works.

Sally is quite right to point out that I had overlooked the fact that many
publishers are already at home with the fact that a certain percentage
of their authors cannot sign copyright transfer agreements because they
are government employees. Effectively, the Sabo Bill, if it passed, would
simply increase the percentage of such authors. So it was incorrect on
my part to say that they would not accept to publish them: Given the
percentage of journal content that is based on US funded research, they
would be forced to.

But the Bill has not passed yet, and the publishers (and authors) will
still have their say. The percentage of authors who did not sign copyright
transfer in the past (for this reason, or even for other reasons)
was small enough so that publishers could discount it as statistical
variation. But publishers are likely, I think, to try to contest it if it
risks becoming the majority case. Do they have a valid argument?

I think they do, for the simple reason that if the public-domain
constraint is being introduced in order to create open access, then it is
a far stronger constraint than it needs to be. Merely forcing publishers
to allow authors to self-archive accomplishes the very same goal in a
far less radical and risky way -- for both publishers and authors.

For authors, putting their texts into the public domain leaves them
less protected from plagiarism and text-alteration. For publishers,
a large increase of public-domain content could easily threaten
their viability. In this day and age, all we have to imagine is that
another copycat company could systematically (and legally) harvest and
aggregate open-access public-domain contents as soon as they appear, and
immediately offer them, at cut-rate prices, both online and on-paper. Why
subscribe to journal X, which published the contents, if you can subscribe
to journal or aggregator Y for the same contents, at a far lower
price? (US funded research is a huge chunk of many journals'
contents. That's why this Bill is so important. But that's also why it's
so important that it should avoid overkill.)

Wouldn't exactly the same risk be there if instead of mandating that the
contents be public-domain, the Bill mandated only that they be
open-access? Definitely not. With just open access, copyright continues to
be asserted, whether the author transfers it to the publisher (retaining
only the open-access self-archiving right) or merely licenses the content,
retaining the copyright. Self-archived contents cannot be harvested and
re-sold, online or on-paper. The publisher (or author) could immediately
take legal action against that, as before. Self-archiving is the
prerogative of the author, not of third parties, and it does not even
include the *author's* right to sell or re-sell his own texts (that has
to be negotiated separately, as always, if copyright is transfered).

The self-archiving right is merely the author's right to make his own
full-text freely accessible online to any would-be user on the web,
worldwide. That means any individual user, webwide, can read it
on-screen, navigate it computationally, download it, save it, and print
it off. It also means that harvesters like google can link to, invert
and index the full text but they cannot -- if it is copyrighted --
re-sell the text, online or on-paper (otherwise they would effectively
become the rival publisher mentioned above).

Now we come to a delicate point that it is best if all parties --
open-access advocates and adversaries alike -- face up to squarely
and frankly : Although it is true that mandating only open-access rather
than public-domain entails far less risk for publishers (and authors), it
is not true that it entails *zero* risk for publishers. Whereas putting the
contents into the public domain would allow -- even invite -- attempts to
undercut the publisher's business, making the contents openly accessible
online could eventually have a similar effect, indirectly: For whereas
with public-domain contents, rival cut-rate publishers could legally
capture the publisher's market, it is conceivable that with open-access
contents the demand for the publisher's version would simply shrink,
because users could could get everything they needed using the open-access
version.

There is no point denying that this could be the eventual effect
of the Sabo Bill even if it mandated only open-access rather than
public-domain. The glue of OAI-interoperability
http://www.openarchives.org/ for all self-archived research means that
eventually all users would have the option of accessing all research
journal content for free from one global virtual OAI archive in the
sky. But the speed and certainty of abrupt demand-loss is far greater
with the public-domain option -- and with no advantage at all to
anyone. Publishers would be put at a needless increased risk of a
forced, hasty transition to open-access publishing -- a choice that
should be left to them, and to supply and demand, and to time: *as
long as open-access itself is provided right now.* Nor would authors
be better-served by abruptly being forced to place their texts into an
unprotected, untested limbo.

The transition to open-access publishing, if and when it actually took
place, would be a far slower, smoother, and more natural one if it
occurred as the gradual result of author/institution self-archiving
rather than a draconian public-domain mandate. The open-access
cost-recovery model is not yet a tested one. Nor are the sources
from which to cover the costs yet available or assured. Moreover,
the model's probability of succeeding is far greater once journal
publishers have had a chance to accommodate to it gradually -- as they
would if authors were gradually beginning to self-archive their own
texts in their own institutional archives. 
http://www.nature.com/nature/debates/e-access/Articles/harnad.html#B1

With the help of the glue of OAI-interoperability and cross-archive
search engines like OAIster http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/
users too would gradually learn the benefits and possibilities of a
growing online open-access literature. No specific journal would be put
abruptly at risk, because self-archiving is a distributed, anarchic
process, even with the glue of OAI-interoperability. It would take
a long time for libraries or users to ascertain at what point enough of
the contents of a given journal were openly accessible to make it safe
to cancel the subscription or license to it.

And if and when cancellation pressure did begin to build up, publishers
would have a chance to experiment gradually with cost-cutting and
down-sizing, to keep making ends meet. There is much talk today about
immediate transitions to open-access publishing, with wide variation in
how much it should cost per paper (from <$500 to >$1500) but nobody 
really
knows what the the true costs of open-access publishing should or will
be. Some think the cost per paper will be the same as now, but instead
of being paid by a set of subscribing institutions, it will be paid by
the author's institution. But if the author's institution is already
self-archiving the paper, it is not at all clear what service the
publisher will need to perform, over and above peer review and editing.

All these variables would have a chance to adjust themselves gradually
if the only thing mandated by the Sabo Bill were open access itself.
We would have immediate open-access, but none of the other risky and
unpredictable consquences of abruptly mandating that all US
funded-research papers must be put in the public domain.

> To my mind, the question really is whether either the authors or their
> employer actually do anything to avail themselves of the works' Public
> Domain status.  No one seems to have been able to answer this question.
> If they don't, why should the Sabo Bill's extension of identical status to
> Federally funded works, in itself, be expected to achieve anything for the
> Open Access agenda?

You are quite right that mandating public domain alone does not even
ensure that the research will be made open access! It only provides the
*possibility* of making it open access (which again boils down to
self-archiving, for publishers always had the possibility of becoming
open-access publishers!). Mandating open access instead -- by making
it a condition of research funding that all reulting refereed journal
articles must be open-access -- thereby mandates an *action* on the part
of the grant-recipient, namely, that he either publishes the research
in an open-access journal (if a suitable one exists -- 5% of journals
currently) or he publishes it in a conventional journal (95%), and also
self-archives it in his institutional open-access archive (or a central
one, such as PubMedCentral, where one exists).

Mandating public domain forces publishers to immediately accept
public-domain texts (and forces authors to make their texts public
domain) without any assurance that the texts will be made openly
accessible online by anyone.

Mandating open access forces the grant recipient and institution to
ensure that their own research output is openly accessible. For 5%
of research, this mandate can be fulfilled by publishing it in an
open-access journal. For the rest of the 95%, it will force publishers to
allow self-archiving by exactly the same token as it would have forced
them to accept public-domain content -- but at far less risk to both
publisher and author.

Stevan Harnad

NOTE: A complete archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open
access to the peer-reviewed research literature online is available at
the American Scientist September Forum (98 & 99 & 00 & 01 & 02 
& 03):

    http://amsci-forum.amsci.org/archives/september98-forum.html
                            or
    http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/index.html

Discussion can be posted to: september98-forum AT amsci-forum.amsci.org 



[BOAI] Re: Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, H.R. 2613)

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 23:00:47 +0100 (BST)


Threading:      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, H.R. 2613) from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

    [I liked Peter Suber's paper on "The taxpayer argument for open
    access." https://mx2.arl.org/Lists/SPARC-OANews/Message/97.html 
    The following was written earlier, after I saw his draft, but Peter
    asked me to wait till his paper appeared before posting mine. Our
    positions agree, and differ only slightly in emphasis.]

            Public Access vs. Public Domain

                Stevan Harnad

(1) HEALTH RESEARCH VS. ALL OTHER KINDS OF RESEARCH

The tax-paying patient-rights argument for toll-free access to
research is a good one for health-related research, but it does not
generalize to other research -- and hence risks inducing the (incorrect)
conclusion that health-related funded-research is the only special case
that needs toll-free access! It is accordingly important to immunize
against all such narrow interpretations of the case for toll-free access
from the outset, by coupling the health/tax-payer rationale for toll-free
access with the other, more general toll-free-access rationales,
pre-emptively.

The most general rationale is that toll-free access to research is best
for research itself. Blocking research access blocks research uptake and
usage, thereby blocking the pace, progress, productivity, and impact of
research, in every field. It has to be made very clear that open access
is as much about hadrons (and Hadrian!) as it is about health! Health
just serves to drive the point home, because the connection between
research progress and our health is so transparent, vital and close to
where we all live. But if the rest of scientific and scholarly research
too is worth doing (and funding), and not just health-related research,
then it *all* needs toll-free access just as much as health research does.

(2) TAX-PAYER ACCESS VS. RESEARCHER ACCESS

The tax-payer argument for toll-free access to research in general
(rather than just to health research in particular) should not be cast
solely, or even primarily, in the form of toll-free research-access
for tax-payers! It should be cast primarily in the form of toll-free
research-access for researchers:

Researchers are funded by tax-payers to conduct research because of the
potential benefits of research progress to tax-payers. Those benefits do
not consist of the tax-payer's freedom to read the research results! Most
tax-payers will have no interest in reading research results. Their
interest is in the potential *application* of research results --
technological, medical, commercial and cultural -- to the improvement of
their lives. 

The primary readers and users of research are researchers, and the
benefits to tax-payers of giving researchers toll-free access to one
another's research are exactly the same as the benefits to tax-payers
of funding the conduct of the research itself: Research is interactive,
collaborative, collective, cumulative. Maximizing researchers' access
to research results maximizes research progress and productivity and
thereby maximizes the probability of eventual applications, and hence
of eventual direct benefits to the tax-payer.

Access-denial (the current subscription/license toll-based status quo)
has the exact opposite effect. It blocks researchers' access to one
another's research. Researchers can only access and use the research for
which their own institution can afford the access tolls. No institution
can afford access to all or even most published research. Most
institutions can afford only a small and shrinking fraction of it.
Hence all research is effectively inaccessible to most researchers. All
that potential research usage and progress is currently being lost,
daily. That is why it is in tax-payers' (and research funders') interests
to make all research accessible toll-free to all potential users
(worldwide).

(3) PUBLISHING IN OPEN-ACCESS JOURNALS
    (THE 5% SOLUTION)
    VS. 
    SELF-ARCHIVING TOLL-ACCESS PUBLICATIONS IN OPEN-ACCESS ARCHIVES
    (THE 95% SOLUTION)

But the appeal and the emphasis should not be unduly focussed on the
tax-payer either. Researchers themselves are the ones that most need to
be targeted. It is critically important to stress that whereas, with help
from the tax-payer and from funding agencies, it is possible to
help cover the costs of publishing in open-access journals, there
are still very few open-access journals in existence today (500
journals, according to http://www.doaj.org/ ), relative to the amount
of research that is published annually (24,000 journals according to
http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/ ). This demographic fact
and its consequences must be stated very explicitly and they must 
also be understood clearly:

If the 5%/95% figure is not stated and understood, it is certain that
most people will draw the erroneous and counterproductive conclusion that
publishing research in open-access journals is the fastest, most direct
(perhaps even the only) way for researchers to provide toll-free access
to their research today.

But this is far from being the case. Open-access journals exist for
only 5% of annual research output today. Hence publishing in (and
covering the costs of) open-access journals is only the 5% solution
for refereed research publication and access today. The other 95% of
research can only be published in toll-access journals today. Hence
researchers self-archiving their own toll-access journal publications
in their own institutions' open-access archives is the solution for the
remaining 95%. This too must be strongly encouraged by the tax-payer and
the research-funder, not just the 5% solution. The complementarity as
well as the relative scope of the two means of attaining open access
must be clearly understood if we are to reach the optimal and inevitable
outcome of toll-free access to 100% of the refereed research literature
now rather than decades hence.

(4) "PUBLISH (WITH MAXIMIZED ACCESS/IMPACT) OR PERISH"

Last, there is a limit to how much the government, the research-funder,
and the tax-payer can do through funding and legislation. The traditional
institutional carrot/stick mandate that researchers must "publish or
perish" must now be extended to mandating that they "publish with
maximized access/impact" (i.e., open access) so as to help bring
it home to researchers that it is in their own interest to make their
research accessible toll-free for all potential users. The optimal dual
strategy is hence:

    (i) Wherever a suitable open-access journal for you to publish your
    research in exists today (c. 5%), publish it there, today.

    (ii) For the rest of your research (c. 95%), for which a suitable
    open-access journal does not exist today, publish it in your preferred
    toll-access journal, but also self-archive it in your institutional
    toll-free access archive, today.

http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/harnad/

(5) PUBLIC ACCESS VS. PUBLIC DOMAIN

The Public Access to Science Act (Sabo Bill, HR 2613) (PASA) rightly
invokes the taxpayer argument in support of open access to (funded)
research. However, the *means* by which PASA proposes to provide open
access is far more radical and confrontational than necessary -- and the
reason is that the Bill's proponents clearly had only the 5% solution in
mind in proposing it, as if that were the only possible solution.

All that is needed to serve all the needs of researchers, research,
and tax-payers is open access -- that is, immediate, permanent, free,
online access to the full-text of every research journal article. To
attain this, it is not necessary that all authors and publishers renounce
copyright protection for all those texts. It is only necessary that
*someone* provide open access to them! Open-access journals do that,
but they represent less than 5% of the 24,000 journals there are. What
about the rest?

All that the PASA need mandate is that all journal articles based on
funded research must be made openly accessible. To comply with this,
neither the author nor the publisher needs to renounce copyright
protection for those articles. The journal must simple allow the
author to self-archive them, in his own institutional open-access
archive -- as 55% of the journals sampled already do officially (and
many others will agree to do if asked on a per-article basis):
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm
And even for the few journals that might refuse, the author has a legal
alternative that is almost as simple, and effectively provides the open
access anyway: self-archive the unrefereed preprint plus the corrections.
http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/#publisher-forbids

PASA could help bring the 55% figure to the 95% needed (together with the
open-access journals' 5%) to make the entire research journal literature
100% open-access -- by simply mandating open access itself.

By needlessly mandating more -- the renunciation of copyright (forcing
authors not only to seek a journal that will accept those terms, instead
of the journal they might have preferred, but also putting their texts at
risk of being plagiarized or corrupted) -- PASA would needlessly elicit
opposition from publishers and authors alike.

The tax-payer is best served if the access to (and hence the usage
and impact of) tax-funded research is maximized by requiring that its
full-texts must be made openly accessible online to all would-be users,
everywhere. There is no need whatsoever for those texts to be put into
the public domain in order to obtain that universal benefit.

Stevan Harnad

NOTE: A complete archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open
access to the peer-reviewed research literature online is available at
the American Scientist September Forum (98 & 99 & 00 & 01 & 02 
& 03):

    http://amsci-forum.amsci.org/archives/september98-forum.html
                            or
    http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/index.html

Discussion can be posted to: september98-forum AT amsci-forum.amsci.org 



[BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 21:04:48 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message

    [Further corrobrative data from Carol Tenopir that Ulrich's
     covers 24K peer-reviewed journals, of which 18K are
     self-described as "sholarly/academic." Still a mystery what
     fields the other 6,000 peer-reviewed journals are in. -- SH]

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 14:56:34 -0400
From: ctenopir <ctenopir AT utk.edu>
To: harnad AT coglit.soton.ac.uk
Subject: Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI

Stevan, You are right that the exact number of journals depends on the
search strategy, version of Ulrich's used (and even Ulrich's indexing
policies). To avoid the problem of spurious accuracy is why I now always
do as you do and round the number off. I check this every 6 months or so
(last time for part of the strategies was a few weeks ago). Attached are
the Feb. 2003 and Oct. 2003 counts from ulrichsweb with the stategies
given (there are many ways to slice this cake.) Carol

Carol Tenopir, Professor
School of Information Sciences and
Interim Director, Center for Information Studies
University of Tennessee
1345 Circle Park Drive, 451 Communications Bldg.
Knoxville, TN 37996-0341
(865) 974-7911 FAX (865) 974-4967
web.utk.edu/~tenopir/


Searches of ulrichsweb.com, 					Feb 12, 2003	Aug 21, 2003
Carol Tenopir

Requested searches

1. Limited to academic/scholarly periodicals			43677		

2. Limited to active academic/scholarly periodicals		39565		41,232

3. Limited to academic/scholarly refereed periodicals	18675

4. Limited to active academic/scholarly refereed periodicals	17649

5. Limited to academic/scholarly online periodicals		15199

6. Limited to active academic/scholarly online periodicals	14647		15,481

7. Limited to refereed periodicals				25367		26,557

8. Refereed andnot academic/scholarly			6692

Other searches of potential interest

1. Limited to active periodicals (of all types)			175,639

2. Limited to active refereed periodicals (of all types)	23231

3. Limited to active online periodicals (of all types)		33393

4. Limited to active online refereed periodicals (all types)    12575

5. Limited to active online refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	10968

6. Keyword search scien* OR techn* OR medic*
Limited to active online refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	8977

7. Keyword search scien* OR techn* OR medic*		13009
Limited to active refereed academic/scholarly periodicals

8. Keyword search scien* OR techn* OR medic* OR soci*
Limited to active refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	14240

9. Subject search scien* OR techn* OR medic*
Limited to active refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	3840


10. Subject search scien* OR techn* OR medic*
Limited to active refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	5699

11. Subject search scien* OR techn* OR medic* OR soci*
Limited to active refereed academic/scholarly periodicals	6145 

12. Subject search scien* OR techn* OR medic* OR soci*
Limited to active refereed online academic/scholarly periodicals	5076
 12 but active online academic/scholarly					11825

Definitions from the Ulrich's online glossary:

Active: A publication status that indicates that a title is currently
being published.

Refereed: Otherwise known as peer-review. Refers to the system of
critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues
or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or
otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review
and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the
quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject
to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality
content than those that aren't.


[BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 21:00:03 +0100 (BST)


Threading: [BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message

    [Forwarding reply from Yvette Diven of Bowker's: 24,000 is
    apparently the total number of peer-reviewed journals covered (as
    determined by Ulrich's/Bowker criteria that are not described here)
    and 18,000 is apparently the number that are self-decsribed by the
    publisher as "academic/scholarly". (One wonders what might be the
    subject matter of the 6,000 peer-reviewed journals that are *not*
    self-designated as academic/scholarly: Possibly pure and applied
    research?) -- SH]

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 12:46:43 -0400
From: "Diven, Yvette" <yvette.diven AT bowker.com>
To: "Stevan Harnad" <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Subject: Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI

Professor Harnad,

In reading through the string of emails, I think I can clarify the
issue of differing counts from Ulrich's.  It appears that the counts
are being derived in different ways, using different search criteria in
ulrichsweb.com (www.ulrichsweb.com), and that information intended for
users of Ulrich's Serials Analysis System (www.ulrichsweb.com/analysis)
is being used to define content in ulrichsweb.com. Ulrich's, the database,
supports both products and the underlying content and counts in both
products are from Ulrich's.

Ulrichsweb.com is designed to be a library staff/patron/faculty
interface product.  Ulrichsweb.com contains bibliographic information
on approximately 250,000 periodicals -- active, forthcoming, suspended,
and ceased.  There are approximately 175,000 active status periodicals
in Ulrich's -- including journals, magazines, newspapers, bulletins,
monographic series, and newsletters. If one searches ulrichsweb.com
for active-status refereed publications of all types, the search
result is 24,165 (today's total reflecting the last weekly update of
ulrichsweb.com).  A search on active-status refereed 
"academic/scholarly"
publications yields a total of 18,788 publications. The designation of
"academic/scholarly" is assigned to a periodical by its publisher, 
based
on a list of designations in use in Ulrich's. There is another small
group of 58 records flagged in the Ulrich's database as active that
are currently being researched for address confirmation. I believe it
is those 58 records that constitute the difference between the "18,846
refereed active academic/scholarly serials" referenced in an email in
the string below and the search I have just run this morning.

The "FAQ" that is mentioned is the list of frequently asked questions
about Ulrich's Serials Analysis System.  That product is designed to
be a collection evaluation tool for library professionals - it is not
a patron-access interface product like ulrichsweb.com.  The "Ulrich's
Universe" and "Ulrich's Core" defined in the FAQ refer to the 
baselines
of comparative measurement that Ulrich's Serials Analysis System makes
available. Libraries use Ulrich's Serials Analysis System to compare
their library's holdings against (1) all active-status titles in the
Ulrich's database and/or (2) a selected subset of approximately 50,000
"core" titles that includes academic/scholarly titles, refereed 
titles,
major consumer and trade titles, and recommended titles. The Ulrich's
Core, as it is used in Ulrich's Serials Analysis System includes the
41,000+ active-status academic/scholarly titles pulled from Ulrich's;
that total includes refereed academic/scholarly titles, but does not
consists wholly of refereed titles.

I hope that this information helps clarify the counts.  If there are
other questions, please let me know.

Kind Regards,
- Yvette

Yvette Diven
Director, Product Management, Serials
R.R. Bowker LLC
630 Central Avenue
New Providence, NJ 07974
Local Office Phone:  415.861.3080
Email: yvette.diven AT bowker.com
Web:  www.ulrichsweb.com

-----Original Message-----
From: Stevan Harnad [mailto:harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk]
Sent: Thursday, September 04, 2003 7:00 AM
To: BOAI Forum
Subject: Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs
and ISI

> On Thu, 4 Sep 2003, Gerritsma, Wouter wrote:

> We ought to get the numbers straight. You used to quote 20,000 peer
> reviewed journals, based on Ulrich. 

Correct. That was the (rounded-off) figure I was given by Ulrich's a few
years ago. The new (exact) figure from Ulrich's is 24,116 (see reply from
Yvette Diven, below). I again rounded it off: 24,000
http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

> Using Ulrichsweb I made a quick check
> (this morning), and only found 18,846 refereed active academic/scholarly
> serials. I can't see why you increased your quote on the number of
> serials to 24,000 today, the FAQ you refered to comes with other
> figures altogether:

There seem to be several different ways of estimating total refereed
journals in Ulrichs. Web queries give one outcome; a direct query to
Ulrich's another. (Perhaps Yvette can clarify?)

> Q  What does the "Ulrich's Core" consist of?  
> A  The "Ulrich's Core" consists of approximately 50,000 active 
titles
> that represent academic and scholarly journals, refereed serials,
> titles reviewed in Katz's Magazines for Libraries, and major consumer
> and trade publications.  http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

I don't know about "Ulrich's Core" but I think Ulrich's total serials
coverage is closer to 200,000.

A recent reply from Gene Garfield, by the way, refers to
total of about 15,000 refereed *scientific* journals worldwide, of which
ISI indexes about half (the core?).

    GARFIELD:
    "The key to all this is a proper definition of a journal and it
    varies all over the lot. I think 15,000 scientific journals is good
    enough. ISI covers half of these which means that they are covering
    about 75% of the... probably 1.5 million [articles published]
    worldwide"

Garfield also uses 100 articles as his rounded-off estimate of the
average number of articles per journal (ISI's current exact figure
is about 107, and higher for science than for non-science).

That would mean, roughly, 24,000 x 100 = about 2.5 million refereed
articles annually (again rounding off for simplicity).

> It is hard to believe that the major consumer and trade publications
> consist of more than half of "Ulrich's core"

I can't follow any of that. I am interested only in estimating the
total number of refereed journals, both scientific and scholarly.

> So how many peer reviewed scholarly publications are out there?

Somewhere in the vicinity of 24K still sounds right, and about 2.5
million articles annually. 

The purpose of soliciting these data was in order to estimate what
proportion of the annual 2.5 million refereed-journal articles is
open-access because it appears in open-access journals, what proportion is
open-access because it is self-archived by its authors, and how quickly
open-access is growing via these two complementary routes:

There are 500 (low-end estimate -- http://www.doaj.org/ ) to 1000
(high-end estimate) open-access journals (i.e., 50,000 to 100,000
articles), so that means at most 5% of the annual refereed literature
of 2.5 million.

For self-archiving, Kat Hagedorn has replied that OAIster's
count for their 2002-dated self-archived full-texts
is already 115,000 (indexing nearly 200 OAI archives)
http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/viewcolls.html 
But this is really only the tip of the iceberg: OAIster does not include
all OAI archives, and even all OAI archives would not include the
much vaster quantity of research full-texts that are self-archived
on authors' ordinary websites rather than in OAI archives. (Citeseer
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cs alone harvests at least 50,000 per year
in computer science alone.) 

(On the other hand, for our purposes, the OAIster figure does include some
double-counts because it also harvests some of the open-access journals,
and Kat Hagedorn replied that she still has no way of getting separate
counts for journal archives vs institutional archives.)

I am still drawing together the data received in response to my query,
so as to estimate the absolute and relative growth rate for the two
complementary sources of open-access articles (open-access publishing and
open-access self-archiving). The two are, even on the most conservative
estimates, about neck-and-neck at 5% each, but the crucial difference is
that open access through open-access publishing is also at ceiling at 5%
-- its counts can only be increased if more of the 23,000 non-OA journals
convert to OA or more new OA journals are founded and capture the 23,000
non-OA journals' authorships, giving authors more open-access journals to
publish in. The rates at which that is taking place can be extrapolated
too, but they are bound to be slow, because journals are not easy to
found, fill or convert.

In contrast, open-access through self-archiving is nowhere
near its ceiling -- which, even on the most conservative
estimate is at least at 55% currently (and actually much higher)
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm

My guess is that it will be much easier and faster to convince the
research community and its institutions to self-archive than to found,
convert or fill new OA journals. That is why I am trying to correct the
disproportionate hopes that are currently being placed on the 5% solution 
(open-access publishing) while missing the potential of the 
complementary 55%-95% solution (open-access self-archiving).

> Is it an important question we have to ask ourselves anyway? I think
> it is good to have a yardstick on which we can measure the progress of
> adopting the open access model.

It is indeed an important question and yardstick. Now let us compile and
examine the comparative time-series data and projections that result!

Stevan Harnad

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Date: Fri, 29 Aug 2003 12:15:01 -0400
From: "Diven, Yvette" <yvette.diven AT bowker.com>
To: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>

Dear Professor Harnad,

My apologies for the delay in getting this information to you.
Following are active-status refereed serial counts from ulrichsweb.com
as of Thursday, August 28.  (The ulrichsweb.com data is updated weekly
with all of the past week's new and changed records.)  The numbers for
refereed serials include refereed conference proceedings as well as
refereed journals.  The subject headings listed below are the top-level
Ulrich's headings, and the counts for each include the counts for all
of the sub-classifications within those headings. So, for example,
"Biology" includes "Biology (General)", "Biology - 
Biochemistry",
"Biology - Bioengineering", "Biology - Microbiology", etc.

I hope that this information is useful to you in your Open Access Journals
research. As Director of Product Development for Serials at Bowker, I
would be thrilled if you could mention in your posted results and analysis
that the numbers are from Ulrich's. We are focused on making Ulrich's a
stronger database to aid serials research, and knowing that Ulrich's is
helping to contribute to a better understanding of the changing serials
environment is gratifying.  We welcome your comments and suggestions as
to the types of additional serials data that you as a researcher would
like to see in Ulrich's.  Please feel free to contact me at any time.

Kind Regards,

- Yvette

COUNTS OF ACTIVE-STATUS REFEREED SERIALS FROM ULRICH'S

TOTAL ALL (900+) ULRICH'S SUBJECTS:  24,116

BIOLOGY -- 2,373
CHEMISTRY -- 708
COMPUTERS -- 636
EARTH SCIENCES -- 713
GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS -- 113
LINGUISTICS -- 640
MATHEMATICS -- 776
MEDICAL SCIENCES -- 4,313
PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY -- 438
PHYSICS -- 660

Yvette Diven
Director, Product Management, Serials
R.R. Bowker LLC
630 Central Avenue
New Providence, NJ 07974
Local Office Phone:  415.861.3080
Email: 
Web:  www.ulrichsweb.com



[BOAI] September issue of the SPARC Open Access Newsletter

From: Peter Suber <peters AT earlham.edu>
Date: Thu, 04 Sep 2003 13:55:57 -0400


Threading:      • This Message
             [BOAI] September issue of the SPARC Open Access Newsletter from peters AT earlham.edu


* Sorry for cross-posting  *

I just mailed the September 4 issue of the SPARC Open Access 
Newsletter.  In addition to the usual round-up of news and bibliography 
from the past month, it takes a close look at the taxpayer argument for 
open access.

September issue
https://mx2.arl.org/Lists/SPARC-OANews/Message/97.html

Subscription info, forum, and archive
http://www.arl.org/sparc/soa/index.html

      Peter



----------
Peter Suber
Research Professor of Philosophy, Earlham College
Open Access Project Director, Public Knowledge
Author, SPARC Open Access Newsletter
Editor, Open Access News blog
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/
peter.suber AT earlham.edu


ATTACHMENT: message.html!


[BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI

From: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 14:59:47 +0100 (BST)


Threading: RE: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact of research articles from Wouter.Gerritsma AT wur.nl
      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
             [BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

> On Thu, 4 Sep 2003, Gerritsma, Wouter wrote:

> We ought to get the numbers straight. You used to quote 20,000 peer
> reviewed journals, based on Ulrich. 

Correct. That was the (rounded-off) figure I was given by Ulrich's a few
years ago. The new (exact) figure from Ulrich's is 24,116 (see reply from
Yvette Diven, below). I again rounded it off: 24,000
http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

> Using Ulrichsweb I made a quick check
> (this morning), and only found 18,846 refereed active academic/scholarly
> serials. I can't see why you increased your quote on the number of
> serials to 24,000 today, the FAQ you refered to comes with other
> figures altogether:

There seem to be several different ways of estimating total refereed
journals in Ulrichs. Web queries give one outcome; a direct query to
Ulrich's another. (Perhaps Yvette can clarify?)

> Q  What does the "Ulrich's Core" consist of?  
> A  The "Ulrich's Core" consists of approximately 50,000 active 
titles
> that represent academic and scholarly journals, refereed serials,
> titles reviewed in Katz's Magazines for Libraries, and major consumer
> and trade publications.  http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

I don't know about "Ulrich's Core" but I think Ulrich's total serials
coverage is closer to 200,000.

A recent reply from Gene Garfield, by the way, refers to
total of about 15,000 refereed *scientific* journals worldwide, of which
ISI indexes about half (the core?).

    GARFIELD:
    "The key to all this is a proper definition of a journal and it
    varies all over the lot. I think 15,000 scientific journals is good
    enough. ISI covers half of these which means that they are covering
    about 75% of the... probably 1.5 million [articles published]
    worldwide"

Garfield also uses 100 articles as his rounded-off estimate of the
average number of articles per journal (ISI's current exact figure
is about 107, and higher for science than for non-science).

That would mean, roughly, 24,000 x 100 = about 2.5 million refereed
articles annually (again rounding off for simplicity).

> It is hard to believe that the major consumer and trade publications
> consist of more than half of "Ulrich's core"

I can't follow any of that. I am interested only in estimating the
total number of refereed journals, both scientific and scholarly.

> So how many peer reviewed scholarly publications are out there?

Somewhere in the vicinity of 24K still sounds right, and about 2.5
million articles annually. 

The purpose of soliciting these data was in order to estimate what
proportion of the annual 2.5 million refereed-journal articles is
open-access because it appears in open-access journals, what proportion is
open-access because it is self-archived by its authors, and how quickly
open-access is growing via these two complementary routes:

There are 500 (low-end estimate -- http://www.doaj.org/ ) to 1000
(high-end estimate) open-access journals (i.e., 50,000 to 100,000
articles), so that means at most 5% of the annual refereed literature
of 2.5 million.

For self-archiving, Kat Hagedorn has replied that OAIster's
count for their 2002-dated self-archived full-texts
is already 115,000 (indexing nearly 200 OAI archives)
http://oaister.umdl.umich.edu/o/oaister/viewcolls.html 
But this is really only the tip of the iceberg: OAIster does not include
all OAI archives, and even all OAI archives would not include the
much vaster quantity of research full-texts that are self-archived
on authors' ordinary websites rather than in OAI archives. (Citeseer
http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cs alone harvests at least 50,000 per year
in computer science alone.) 

(On the other hand, for our purposes, the OAIster figure does include some
double-counts because it also harvests some of the open-access journals,
and Kat Hagedorn replied that she still has no way of getting separate
counts for journal archives vs institutional archives.)

I am still drawing together the data received in response to my query,
so as to estimate the absolute and relative growth rate for the two
complementary sources of open-access articles (open-access publishing and
open-access self-archiving). The two are, even on the most conservative
estimates, about neck-and-neck at 5% each, but the crucial difference is
that open access through open-access publishing is also at ceiling at 5%
-- its counts can only be increased if more of the 23,000 non-OA journals
convert to OA or more new OA journals are founded and capture the 23,000
non-OA journals' authorships, giving authors more open-access journals to
publish in. The rates at which that is taking place can be extrapolated
too, but they are bound to be slow, because journals are not easy to
found, fill or convert.

In contrast, open-access through self-archiving is nowhere
near its ceiling -- which, even on the most conservative
estimate is at least at 55% currently (and actually much higher)
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ls/disresearch/romeo/Romeo%20Publisher%20Policies.htm

My guess is that it will be much easier and faster to convince the
research community and its institutions to self-archive than to found,
convert or fill new OA journals. That is why I am trying to correct the
disproportionate hopes that are currently being placed on the 5% solution 
(open-access publishing) while missing the potential of the 
complementary 55%-95% solution (open-access self-archiving).

> Is it an important question we have to ask ourselves anyway? I think
> it is good to have a yardstick on which we can measure the progress of
> adopting the open access model.

It is indeed an important question and yardstick. Now let us compile and
examine the comparative time-series data and projections that result!

Stevan Harnad

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Date: Fri, 29 Aug 2003 12:15:01 -0400
From: "Diven, Yvette" <yvette.diven AT bowker.com>
To: Stevan Harnad <harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk>

Dear Professor Harnad,

My apologies for the delay in getting this information to you.
Following are active-status refereed serial counts from ulrichsweb.com
as of Thursday, August 28.  (The ulrichsweb.com data is updated weekly
with all of the past week's new and changed records.)  The numbers for
refereed serials include refereed conference proceedings as well as
refereed journals.  The subject headings listed below are the top-level
Ulrich's headings, and the counts for each include the counts for all
of the sub-classifications within those headings. So, for example,
"Biology" includes "Biology (General)", "Biology - 
Biochemistry",
"Biology - Bioengineering", "Biology - Microbiology", etc.

I hope that this information is useful to you in your Open Access Journals
research. As Director of Product Development for Serials at Bowker, I
would be thrilled if you could mention in your posted results and analysis
that the numbers are from Ulrich's. We are focused on making Ulrich's a
stronger database to aid serials research, and knowing that Ulrich's is
helping to contribute to a better understanding of the changing serials
environment is gratifying.  We welcome your comments and suggestions as
to the types of additional serials data that you as a researcher would
like to see in Ulrich's.  Please feel free to contact me at any time.

Kind Regards,

- Yvette

COUNTS OF ACTIVE-STATUS REFEREED SERIALS FROM ULRICH'S

TOTAL ALL (900+) ULRICH'S SUBJECTS:  24,116

BIOLOGY -- 2,373
CHEMISTRY -- 708
COMPUTERS -- 636
EARTH SCIENCES -- 713
GERONTOLOGY AND GERIATRICS -- 113
LINGUISTICS -- 640
MATHEMATICS -- 776
MEDICAL SCIENCES -- 4,313
PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY -- 438
PHYSICS -- 660

Yvette Diven
Director, Product Management, Serials
R.R. Bowker LLC
630 Central Avenue
New Providence, NJ 07974
Local Office Phone:  415.861.3080
Email: 
Web:  www.ulrichsweb.com



RE: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact of research articles

From: "Gerritsma, Wouter" <Wouter.Gerritsma AT wur.nl>
Date: Thu, 4 Sep 2003 09:12:13 +0200


Threading: Re: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact of research articles from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk
      • This Message
             [BOAI] Re: Request for journal/article/field statistics from Ulrichs and ISI from harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk

Dear Stevan,

We ought to get the numbers straight. You used to quote 20,000 peer reviewed 
journals, based on Ulrich. Using Ulrichsweb I made a quick check (this 
morning), and only found 18,846 refereed active academic/scholarly serials. I 
can't see why you increased your quote on the number of serials to 24,000 
today, the FAQ your refered to comes with other figures altogether: 

Q  What does the "Ulrich's Core" consist of?  
A   
The "Ulrich's Core" consists of approximately 50,000 active titles 
that represent academic and scholarly journals, refereed serials, titles 
reviewed in Katz's Magazines for Libraries, and major consumer and trade 
publications.  http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

It is hard to believe that the major consumer and trade publications consist of 
more than half of "Ulrich's core"

So how many peer reviewed scholarly publication's are out there?

Is it an important question we have to ask ourselves anyway? I think it is good 
to have a yardstick on which we can measure the progress of adopting the open 
access model.  

Your sincerely

Wouter Gerritsma

-----------------------------------------
Wouter Gerritsma
Information Specialist Plant Library 
Wageningen UR Library 

e-mail: wouter.gerritsma AT wur.nl
-----------------------------------------

-----Original Message-----
From: Stevan Harnad [mailto:harnad AT ecs.soton.ac.uk]
Sent: Wednesday, September 03, 2003 22:34
To: BOAI Forum
Subject: Re: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact
of research articles


On Wed, 3 Sep 2003, Etienne Joly wrote:

> http://www.biomedcentral.com/openaccess/forum/?letter=20030722ej

> For the benefit of the scientific community, completely Open Access
> to all primary scientific articles is clearly the only way to go....
> I believe... that it would be possible to set up a system 
> whereby papers would get evaluated for publication solely on their 
> scientific soundness, whilst the best papers would still get recognised 
> and their authors rewarded for making important contributions. For 
> example I would envisage that the amount charged for the publication of 
> their manuscript would be inversely related to the scientific impact of 
> that paper. The ground basis of this proposal is that papers would be 
> rated retroactively, and this rating would provide the authors with a 
> quotable evaluation of their publications that could be used on their 
> CVs or their grant applications.

What the peer-reviewed research literature needs (urgently) today is
to become freely accessible to all of its potential users worldwide,
online, today. This does not call for any tampering with peer review on
the basis of untested (and often very unrealistic) speculations. It only
calls for free online access to the peer-reviewed research literature.

The true cost of *implementing* peer review (referees referee for free),
whatever that cost turns out to be, can and will be paid for in advance,
by the researcher's institution or research-funder, *if and when that
becomes necessary.* At the moment, it is necessary only for
at most five percent (5%) -- http://www.doaj.org/ -- of the 24,000 
peer-reviewed
journals (3-4 million annual articles) that exist today:
http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/ These 24,000 journals and
their 3-4 million annual articles are what we are talking about freeing
online access *to* here. http://www.ulrichsweb.com/ulrichsweb/analysis/

For the remaining ninety-five percent (95%) of those 24,000 journals
and 3-4 million annual articles, all that is needed in order to make
them freely accessible online today is for their authors to continue to
publish them in the journals of their choice -- as well as to self-archive
them in their own institutional eprint archives.
http://www.nature.com/nature/debates/e-access/Articles/harnad.html#B1

No need to implement any speculative changes whatosever in either peer
review or its funding.

    The Invisible Hand of Peer Review.
    http://www.nature.com/nature/webmatters/invisible/invisible.html

    Peer Review Reform Hypothesis-Testing
    http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/0479.html

    A Note of Caution About "Reforming the System"
    http://www.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/1169.html

Stevan Harnad

NOTE: A complete archive of the ongoing discussion of providing open
access to the peer-reviewed research literature online is available at
the American Scientist September Forum (98 & 99 & 00 & 01 & 02 
& 03):

    http://amsci-forum.amsci.org/archives/september98-forum.html
                            or
    http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/~harnad/Hypermail/Amsci/index.html

Discussion can be posted to: september98-forum AT amsci-forum.amsci.org 




Re: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact of research articles

From: Thomas Krichel <krichel AT openlib.org>
Date: Wed, 3 Sep 2003 23:03:39 -0500


Threading: [BOAI] A proposal for evaluating and rewarding the impact of research articles from atn AT cict.fr
      • This Message

  Etienne Joly writes

> But to ensure the quality of the papers published, it is hard to
> conceive that scientific publishing could be carried out by others
> than money-earning professionals. The only viable solution is
> therefore for the publishing charges to be levied on the authors.

  I beg to differ. The cost of academic publishing has  dropped so far
  that it is easy to conceive individuals and departments
  running journals to raise their web exposure and academic reputation.
  The costs can be absorbed by the individual and the institutions.
  There are already many examples for this. It will be a growing
  trend I hope.


  Cheers,

  Thomas Krichel                      mailto:krichel AT openlib.org
  from Moscow, Russia            http://openlib.org/home/krichel
                             RePEc:per:1965-06-05:thomas_krichel

 


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